Ready Alliance Net Control Schedule

If you are a member and would like a turn at being net control, the list is made quarterly and we would welcome you to give it a try. All HAMs are welcome to check into our nets.

1/22/2020Andy Jones (W7ATJ)
1/29/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
2/5/2020Will Studer (N7WSY)
2/12/2020Dennis McKenry (KI7CUS)
2/19/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
2/26/2020Andy Jones (W7ATJ)
3/4/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
3/11/2020Will Studer (N7WSY)
3/25/2020Dennis McKenry (KI7CUS)
4/1/2020Andy Jones (W7ATJ)
4/8/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
4/15/2020Will Studer (N7WSY)
4/22/2020Dennis McKenry (KI7CUS)
4/29/2020Andy Jones (W7ATJ)
5/6/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
5/13/2020Will Studer (N7WSY)
5/27/2020Dennis McKenry (KI7CUS)
6/3/2020Andy Jones (W7ATJ)
6/10/2020Bill Quick (KI7PRU)
6/17/2020Will Studer (N7WSY)
6/24/2020Dennis McKenry (KI7CUS)

Roosevelt Install

On October 26th, 2019 a group of our members assisted the Weston Mountain Digital Radio Association in putting up their second Digital Only Yaesu System Fusion Repeater at Roosevelt, Washington.

This repeater effectively doubled the digital voice coverage of their system and is one of the repeater systems our group uses for non-emergency chit-chat and just fun conversation.

Unfortunately doesn’t allow linking to a lookup, but for more information about the Weston Mountain Digital Radio Association and their polcies you can look up W7NEO on

Repeater Information:

Call: W7NEO
Frequency: 145.190
Offset: Negative 0.600 Hz
Modulation: C4FM Yaesu System Fusion (Digital Only)
DG ID: None

Elevation: 2029 ft
Antenna Height: 40 ft

This is one of the niceset repeater installations I’ve seen and our group was honored to take part in it.

HAM Radio Timeline

History of Radio and Particularly Amateur Radio

Credit to Dave Casler, KE0OG for most of this compiling.

1890s and before

1844 Morse telegraph
1858 First transatlantic cable (doesn’t last even a year because of gross misuse occasioned by complete lack of understanding of the physics involved)
1865 Continental Morse code differs from American Morse in about half the characters and all the punctuation and numerals
1865 ITU (International Telegraph Union) formed. ITU (International Telecommuncations Union) still exists and governs worldwide use of radio spectrum
1866 Successful transatlantic cable
1868 Mahlon Loomis demonstrates wireless telegraphy of two stations 18 miles apart
1800s Development of experiments and understanding of electricity: Oersted, Ampere, Faraday, Henry (1832)
1860-1861 James Clerk Maxwell wrote his equations which completely describe classical electromagnetics
1880 Heaviside invents coaxial cable and patents it in England
1883 Edison discovers “Edison effect,” actually a diode, but does not capitalize on it
1887 Hertz demonstrates that Maxwell’s postulated electromagnetic field (EMF) exists
Oliver Heaviside recasts Maxwell’s equations in their present form
1890s Marconi does his early work
Spark transmitters are invented
1897 formation of Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company Ltd
1889 Marconi bridges English Channel with wireless


1901 Marconi spans Atlantic (first contact is disputed, but other contacts followed) using spark transmitter and coherer detector
1901 Fessenden invents heterodyning
1902 Arc oscillator using a “negative resistance” effect in carbon arc; generates “pure” undamped wave
1900s Synchronous rotary arc, caused an audio modulation of signal; permits easier reception (sort of like MCW)
1902 Heaviside postulates ionosphere
1903 Wright brothers: first controlled, powered, heavier than air flight at Kitty Hawk, NC
1904 Fleming valve (diode) invented by experimenting with Edison effect
1905 widespread use of 500 kHz as ship distress frequency
1905 Vibroplex introduced; still manufactured today
1905 SOS starts being used; gradually replaces CQD
1906 deForest adds grid (“Audion”–a triode) with amplification factor of about 4 to 20
1906 First broadcast of human speech and music, Fessenden
1906 The term “radio” introduced
1906 Hugo Gernsback opens Electro-Importing Company
1907 Einstein discovers E=mc**2 relationship
1900s Galena, silicon, and carborundum crystal receivers (a loose contact with galena via a “cat whisker” forms a diode)
1908 Hugo Gernsback publishes Modern Electrics magazine, first radio magazine
1909 Hugo Gernsback founds Wireless Association of America
Late 1900s Airways were a contentious mess with constant QRM
1909 Radio Club of America formed
1909 Don Wallace (later W6AM in 1928) on air for first time; later becomes famous for his huge rhombic
farm atop Rancho Palos Verde in Los Angeles area


1910 cat whisker detector
Around 1910, term “ham” applied to amateurs; original meaning was derogatory, but hams wore it with pride
and still do
A well-designed kilowatt transmitter has range of perhaps 100 miles (most of the kilowatt is wasted in the
spark, signals extremely broadband)
1910 Gernsback issues Wireless Blue Book: first compendium of 90 stations
1912 Armstrong uses feedback in an Audion; amplifiers and oscillators become practical
1912 RMS Titanic sinks; major turning point in radio history
1912 Radio Act of 1912 prompted by Titanic disaster; “ownership” of bands removed from Marconi
company; licenses required; amateurs licensed and restricted to “200 meters (and down)” (meaning 1.5 MHz and up);
first licensed amateur is 1ZE, Irving Vermiolya; essay tests required!
1912 Q-codes developed; still used today; original list had 50
1912 International Morse introduced to replace both American Morse and Continental Morse; this is the code
we use today
1912/1913 Armstrong invents regenerative receiver; becomes public in 1915; vastly more sensitive than
crystal radios
1913 Severe windstorm in midwest creates blackout; first documented emergency communications by hams
1913 Wireless Society of London founded; later becomes RSGB
1914 Hiram Percy Maxim and Clarence Tuska create Amateur Radio Relay League with backing of Radio
Club of Hartford, which appropriated $50. Primary purpose to move traffic in an orderly way;
1914 Beginning of WW1 in Europe, “The Great War,” “The war to end all wars”
1915 QST publishes first issue
1915 Ray Kellog invents electric moving coil loudspeaker
1915 John Carson applies for patent on idea to suppress carrier and one sideband
1917 Code speed requirement raised to 10 wpm
1917 US entered war; 4000 hams would serve; war ended in 1918; During WWI, QST shuts down
1917 saw 6000 amateurs in US armed forces
1918, 1919 HPM lobbies heavily for return of amateur radio; succeeds; shows lobbying power of ARRL
1918 Armstrong invents superheterodyne technique (creation of an intermediate frequency); also attributed to
Levy of France
1919 Beverage antenna developed
1919 First use of “Wouff Hong” as something used to remedy poor operating techniques


Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) radios become common; superhet becomes common toward end of decade
1920 First “Radio Amateur’s Callbook” with Flying Horse design
1920 First licensed broadcast station KDKA, still operates today
1921 first transatlantic two-way CW in 1923 (France/US) on 110 meters (about 2.7 MHz)
1921 Round-trip cross-USA message in 6.5 minutes
1921 Pacific Radio News magazine founded, later becomes Radio News, after WWII becomes CQ
1921 10,809 amateurs in US
1922 16,467 amateurs in US; growth rate phenomenal!
1922 Wireless Society of London becomes Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), still active today
1922 Amateur First Grade and Amateur Second Grade (latter for those hams not personally examined by a
US Radio Inspector) 10 wpm code, less than 1KW input power
1922 Carson describes FM and concludes it’s inferior to AM (Armstrong’s contribution comes a decade later)
1922 Armstrong invents super-regenerative receiver; used very few components, but superhet superceded it in
1923 Patent granted for SSB
1923 WWV starts broadcasting time and frequency
1923 US Bureau of Standards suggests using frequency instead of wavelength
1924 Quartz crystals introduced to amateur community
1924 Spark banned on new amateur bands at 80, 40, 20 and 5 meter
1925 MARS precursor, the Army’s Auxiliary Amateur Radio System (AARS) formed by Signal Corps
1925 Dynamic loudspeakers appear
1926 Spark prohibited for US Amateurs
1926 Yagi and Uda invent what we today call the Yagi (beam) antenna
1926 Japan Amateur Radio League (JARL) formed
1926 IARU introduces Worked All Continents (WAC) award
1920s Price of vacuum tubes falls (Moore’s law already?)
1920s Amateurs use tubes for transmitting CW; very narrow bandwidth, allows putting lots of power on one
1920s At end of decade amateurs had harmonically-related bands 160, 80, 40, 20, 10, 5
IARU formed
1920s Broadcast explodes; 1927 Radio Act; Federal Radio Commission formed to manage civilian
communications (government frequencies managed separately: a situation that still exists)
1928 US callsigns add a W or K prefix
1928 Segal, W9EEA, writes a “suggested amateur’s code” (considerate, loyal, progressive, friendly, balanced,
and patriotic)
1928 First television station, W3XK
1929 Screen grid introduced (tetrode); suppressor grid (pentode) a year later
1929 German inventor Rudolph Hell invents Hellschreiber (light writer)
1929 Stock market crash; beginning of Great Depression


1930 AM allowed on 20 meters
1931 Empire State Building opened
1931 AT&T patents a coaxial cable (originally invented by Heaviside in 1880)
1932 First panadapter (frequency analyzer) allows spotting of signals visually
1932 Beginnings of Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)
1933 First Field Day; W4PAW group wins with 62 QSOs
1933 R/9 Magazine published articles by W6DEI, Robert Moore, on SSB; articles not widely noticed
1933 Astatic crystal microphones introduced
1933 President Roosevelt begins “fireside chats” via radio
1934 Communications Act (still in effect) creates Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
1934 Logs required
1936 HPM SK
1936 Armstrong publishes classic paper on FM; same method used today
1936 ARRL introduces Worked All States (WAS) Award
1937 ARRL acquires HPM’s W1AW callsign, still used to this day
1937 DXCC introduced (discontinued during WWII)
1937 Marconi SK
1938 ARRL’s W1AW station dedicated in Newington, CT, in building still used
1938 Coax RG/U (Radio Guide Utility) numbers introduced (e.g., RG-8, RG-58)
1938 Orson Welles’s “War of the Worlds” broadcast
1939 Beginning of war in Europe; amateur operations restricted
1939 Cubical quad antenna introduced
1939 51,000 US hams
1939 FCC introduces multiple-choice tests
1939 RCA introduces 811 transmitting tube


1941 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; US enters war; all amateur activity ceases
1940s Of 60,000 US amateurs, 25,000 serve in armed forces, 25,000 more serve in industry or training
positions (back then, amateurs were much younger). During war, military frequently looks to ARRL for technical
advice; ARRL Handbook becomes invaluable aid to developing radios for military use
1942 War Emergency Radio Service (WERS) on 112 MHz; terminated after VJ day in 1945
1942 ARRL publishes a Defense Edition of ARRL Handbook
1943 US Supreme Court rules in Tesla’s favor regarding radio patents by Marconi (culmination of a decades long
1945 Civilian radio use explodes; many manufacturers
1945 Coax cable in wide use (was invented in 1880 by Heaviside)
1945 CQ magazine commences publication; predecessor magazines include Pacific Radio News
1945 6 meter and 2 meter bands added (forcing hams to change equipment from 5 meter and 2.5 meter bands)
Post 1945, military surplus radio equipment floods market
1946 first meteor scatter contacts
1946 Tenth call district added
1946 G5RV invents G5RV antenna
1947 11 meter band added on shared basis
1947 Hams at Stanford University in California begin experiments with SSB–took a decade to become
1947 Transistor invented by Shockley et al at Bell Labs
1947 First electronic kit by Heathkit
1947 Quarter Century Wireless Association (QCWA) formed (25-year veterans); club still operates
1947 Beginnings of the “Red Scare”; through 1954 and beyond
1948 AARS changed to MARS


1950 US amateur population around 90,000
1951 Novice, Tech and Amateur Extra licenses. Old A, B, C, become Advanced, General, and Conditional.
Novice is HF plus some VHF, 5 wpm code test; Tech is 220 MHz and up, 5 wpm code test
1951 AT&T introduces Direct Distance Dialing (DDD); takes years to become universal in US
1952 15 meter band added
1952 RACES founded
1952 Special privileges for Advanced and Amateur Extra were withdrawn (meaning Generals had all
1952 Central Electronics offers SSB gear
1953 first amateur moonbounce
1954 Texas Instruments introduces first all-transistor AM broadcast band receiver; Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo of
Japan picks it up, changes its company name to Sony
1954 first color television system; what an opportunity for TVI!
1954 first all-transistor computer
1954 Herbert Armstrong SK
1955 160 meters returned to hams; many restrictions that were gradually lifted
1955 Collins introduces the “gold dust twins,” the 75A-4 receiver and the KWS-1 transmitter; both optimized
for SSB
1956 Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel” becomes US #1 single
1956 TAT-1, first transatlantic telephone cable, went into operation
1957 Sputnik; education system in US overhauled to create scientists needed for defense development;
“missile gap”
1957 to 1962 CONELRAD; Hams had to monitor certain local broadcast signals; if these went off the air,
hams were to go off the air also
1957 First integrated circuits by Fairchild Semiconductor; 1958 Jack Kilby invents first monolithic IC
1957/1958 International Geophysical Year
1957 Slow scan TV defined
1957 Drake issues first amateur band product, the 1A receiver
1958 Class D Citizen’s Band on 11 meters; hams lose 11 meters (huge uproar!)
Late 1950s Log periodic antenna developed at University of Illinois


1960 FCC grants special temporary authority for SSTV
1960 First two-way 1296 MHz EME contact
1960 73 Magazine begins publishing by Wayne Green, W2NSD, who was often at odds with the ARRL
1960 QST surveys readers, finds about 50%-50% split between SSB and AM; though 20 meters about 75%
1961 Montrose Amateur Radio Club formed!!
1961 Email invented
1961 first OSCAR; formation of AMSAT in 1969
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1963 ARRL moves its headquarters from Hartford to W1AW site in Newington
1963 Kennedy assassinated
1963 250,000 hams; CBers outnumber ham population
1963 Drake introduces TR-3 transceiver
1964 IOTA (islands on the air) award created
1965 Gordon Moore articulates Moore’s Law
1967 Hugo Gernsback SK
1967 Incentive licensing removed privileges from General hams; huge controversy; ARRL was in favor of
incentive licensing; caused enormous public relations problems for ARRL; exclusive Advanced and Extra subbands
on 80, 40, 20, 15, and 6 (Even though there was incredible resistance to this, these subbands remain! Except on 6
1968 FCC suthorizes SSTV
1969 Man lands on the moon and returns safely
1969 First computer network between major university campuses; first ARPANET message (predecessor to
the Internet)


FM repeaters gain major traction
Channelized FM
Mc and Kc replaced by MHz and kHz (metric system)
1970 270,000 US hams
1970 Drake TR-4 introduced
1971 Yaesu introduces FT-101 HF transceiver; it and its successors are highly popular
1972 Novices can use VFO; no longer “rock-bound”
1972 Kenwood introduces TS-520 HF transceiver
1972 FCC widened HF phone bands; reduced impact of incentive licensing
1972 First repeater; duplexer made from discarded Navy shell casings
1975 ARPANET declared “operational”
1975 MIPS Altair 880 microcomputer uses Intel 8080
1976 Requirement removed to change callsign if you moved to a different call area
1976 Microsoft begins business
1976 Apple 1 computer released
1977 Radio Shack TRS-80 released
1977 327,000 US hams; portable and mobile identification no longer required
1977 Instant upgrades became available, license fees abolished
1977 Experience requirement for Extra eliminated; Conditional class is abolished
1978 Novice term 5 years and renewable
1978 first Canadian experiments with packet using ASCII
1979 ICOM America established
1979 WARC Conference; new amateur bands at 10, 18, and 24 MHz (30 meters, 17 meters, and 12 meters);
known as WARC bands; King Hussein of Jordan, JY1, provides key support


1980 FCC permits ASCII, which enables packet for US hams
1980 Russia launches first amateur satellites, destroyed in launch failure; three years to replace
1981 Tuscon Amateur Packet Group (TAPR) formed
1982 First access to 30 meters for US hams; restrictions apply
1982 AMTOR (Amateur Teleprinting over Radio) developed; adaptation of SITOR for amateur use, offers
error-free communication
1983 Owen Garriott, W5LFL, takes 2 meter rig into space; NASA creates SAREX (Shuttle Amateur Radio
1983 first cellular telephone network in US
1983 1000-watt input rule replaced by 1500 watt peak output rule. Most modes gained power, but some (e.g.,
AM) lost power.
1984 License terms extended to 10 years
1984 Launch of Volunteer Exam Coordinator program
1985 PRB-1 provides modicum of protection from local government regulations regarding outdoor antennas
(does not override CC&Rs, though); “reasonable accommodation”
1985 24 MHz band and 902 MHz bands are opened for amateur use; 10 MHz band allotted permanently
1986 AEA releases PK-232; digital modes on HF explode (RTTY, AMTOR, PACTOR)
1987 Novice/Tech 10 meter SSB privileges from 28.3 to 28.5
1988 International Marine Organization (UN) establishes GMDSS system; effect is to end Morse code use by
both commercial (high seas shipping) and military interests
1989 17 meter band becomes available
1989 over 500,000 US amateurs


1991 No code Tech
1991 Invention of the Word Wide Web at CERN in Switzerland
1993 Coast Guard ceases monitoring 500 kHz emergency frequency
1993 Global Positioning System (GPS) achieves Initial Operational Capability (IOC)
1995 Vanity call signs
1997 Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP) launched
1997 Kachina radio introduced; controlled via a PC; exits ham market in 2001
1990s Cell phones start to render autopatches obsolete
1990s World Wide Web becomes widely used
1990s APRS (Automatic Position/Packet Reporting System) becomes more popular
1998 Advent of PSK-31; uses computer soundcard and vastly opens up HF digital radio without need for
expensive TNC; the original software required extremely precise tuning;
1999 Many commercial CW stations close. Globe Wireless closes last coast station in North America to use
1990s Appearance of software-defined radios
1999 TenTec introduces Pegasus; requires PC to control; later released as Jupiter with self-contained front


2000 FCC reduces number of classes to three: Technician, General, Extra; reduces code requirement to 5
2000 Digipan released; makes PSK-31 easy, PSK-31 use explodes, still most popular digital mode today
2001 First amateur two-way transatlantic exchange on 136 kHz, with 90-second dits and 180 second dahs, the
contact took two weeks to complete
2002 EchoLink
2003 ITU ratifies changes to Radio Regulations to allow each country to determine Morse code requirement
2006 All Morse testing requirements for US ham licenses abolished
2007 Over 652,000 US hams


2011 Montrose Ham Radio Club turns 50! (And IBM turns 100!)
2012 US ham population 738,497
2014 ARRL is one century old
2015 QST is one century old

Sources include the ARRL’s Ham Radio History page at, several Wikipedia articles, the ham radio history compiled by Rod Dinkins, AC6V (SK), at (he provides a list of many contributors), and the excellent and detailed history on the site of Thierry Lombry, ON4SKY, at

UTC Time Conversion Chart


Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is the time at the zero or reference meridian. Time changes one hour with each change of 15 degrees in longitude. The five time zones in the US proper and Canada roughly follow these lines.

* 0000 and 2400 are interchangeable. (2400 is associated with the date of the day ending, 0000 with the day just starting.)

Net Control Training Manual

There have been many HAMs I have spoken with lately who tell me they never received any Net Control training. I was fortunate enough many years ago to have a great ARES EC who taught a class once a year to all HAMs who were interested. To pick up the slack for some who haven’t received training, I have complied some resources from around the web. The document below is a great manual. I have also included a couple of pdf documents from the web (created by others) which are great resources.

By R. Bruce Winchell, N8UT
Copyright 1997
Permission is hereby granted for non-profit reproduction of this material provided
this statement is included and the material is used in its’ entirety; or properly
credited by same, if used in part.

Table of Contents


The purpose of this manual is to begin to identify a base set of
information and procedures for use in amateur radio emergency and
weather nets. The intent is to begin creating continuity in net
operations. It will, hopefully, spur other writers into continuing the
concept. This manual is not a definitive work.

Return to top


It is an unfortunate fact that many served agencies and the general
public judge our potential performance and relative value as a public
service by what they hear via scanner during our weather nets and SET
drills. Most of our weather nets and practice drills are poorly done.
Public concensus is, all too often, that amateur radio operators are
nothing more than glorified CB’rs. All too often, they are right. We
simply do not project the “professionalism” that they rightfully expect.
Then we wonder why they don’t call us when something happens and why
our frequencies are under attack. We must correct and promote our public
image; or fade into history.

Served agencies often view Amateur Radio operators as nuisances
instead of assistants. The reason is that we often don’t pay enough
attention to what the served agency really wants and needs. We tend to
operate within our own perceptions of what we think they want or need.
We don’t seek a deep understanding of what their perceptions really are.
The result is that the service we offer becomes greatly diminished in
value to the served agency. We wind up offering and performing services
convenient and effective for us . . . but not necessarily what they
envisioned, really wanted or needed. This is not an easy issue to

Served agencies know that they need help with communications. A
problem arises when we assume that they are aware of all the different
modes of communications available to them from the amateur radio
service. They are not aware! You should assume that they know nothing
about communications beyond their telephone and pager. Most people
aren’t really aware that their cordless or cellular phone, wireless
intercom, baby monitor, garage door opener and pager are really radio

The idea that hams can serve them with packet, ATV, APRS/GPS, long
range HF, CW and VHF/UHF simplex and repeater communications is simply
too much technology for most agency personnel to comprehend. (How much
study did it take for you to get your Extra ticket?) We have to gently
educate them as to our capabilities and then carefully listen to them
for clues to possible uses of various modes to help solve their
communications problems. Hams are great talkers. The greater part of
true and artful communication is listening.

Return to top


The word “net” is short for “network.” Networks can be defined as
groups of equipment, individuals, and/or agencies acting together to
increase efficiency and effectiveness through shared information and
resources. The word “network” can be further broken down into it’s two
components. “Net” implies a capture and holding effect. “Work” implies
that something productive is to be accomplished. Ham radio operators and
nets in emergency situations capture, record, hold, and distribute
information so that others may work (produce results) more effectively.

“Emergency” may be defined as an accident or other crisis where
people and/or property are in distress. Emergencies are nearly always
recognized and declared by agencies or authorities outside of the
Amateur Radio Service. Amateur radio operators and net control stations
do not have independent authority to declare an emergency.

Return to top


An emergency net is started only after a request for service has been
submitted by a served agency. Such a request is usually routed through
an appointed amateur radio Emergency Coordinator (EC) or one of his/her
assistants. If it is known that there is an emergency situation
developing, an EC could request that a “Standby” or “Resource” net be
started in anticipation of a request for service from a served agency.

The proper way for the EC to start the emergency or standby net, is
for him/her to contact a trained NCS operator to handle the task. The EC
could start the net; but it is not recommended. The EC will, sooner or
later, be required to interact with the leadership of served agencies.
It is impossible to do this if the EC is also acting as NCS. An
excellent rule of thumb is that the EC should never be NCS in any
emergency or weather net.

Summary: Generally, an emergency net is started by an EC or AEC at
the request of an authority outside the Amateur Radio Service. National
Weather Service offices are the only authorized source for public
weather watches and warnings. Standby nets are OK in any case.
Memorandums Of Understanding should be in place to clarify activation

Return to top


There are many different kinds of emergency nets. We will examine
only a few of the more common nets here. The basics are all the same.
Details of net activities will be examined throughout this manual.

Return to top


There are two basic Net Formats. The first is the open or undirected net. The second is the directed net.

An open net can be held in the midst of other normal frequency
traffic. It is very informal, net participants may converse directly
and there may or may not be a specified net control operator. If a net
control is selected from the group, that NCS can set the level of
formality with informal net guidelines.

A directed net is formal, has a set of rules or net
directives, all communications must go through net control, it dominates
the frequency with net related traffic only, and has a specified person
in charge and known as the Net Control Station (NCS). The NCS will
issue specific instructions on how he/she wants the net to run.

Return to top


Weather nets have their own set of start-up conditions.

One point must be made very clear right at the beginning: SKYWARN
responsibility of the NWS only.

National Weather Service offices request that amateur radio spotter
nets be activated in several different ways. Some offices request
spotter activation with announcements included in their Public Weather
Watch or Warning broadcasts. Some offices prefer to use a group of radio
or telephone “calling trees.” Still others, (probably the vast
majority), prefer a very simple, “automatic” system; whereby spotter
activation is automatically triggered throughout a coverage area by an
NWS announcement of a watch or warning anywhere in that coverage area. A
combination of these methods, in whole or in part, is not uncommon at

Regardless of what system is used, a formal agreement, known as a
Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU), should be in place between at least
the District and the NWS. County level MOU’s are very useful to cover
special needs in fringe areas. This agreement should describe, in
detail, exactly what the notification system will be; and the response
activities that the amateurs radio spotters will perform at each level
of the watch/warning . The MOU should be freely copied and distributed.
All amateurs within the coverage area should be informed regarding the
content of MOU’s. It is absolutely essential that all Net Control
operators be aware of, and fully familiar with, the Skywarn activation
process for their area.

Note: Some NWS offices are very particular about the use of
“SKYWARN” as a description of a weather net. It is recommended that the
word “Skywarn” not be used in any standby net called by an EC or others.
Once a request for activation has been formally received, or publicly
broadcast by the NWS, it is usually understood that the word “Skywarn”
is OK to use. This issue should be covered in the MOU.

If a request for a weather net is received from a local government
authority instead of the NWS, (this is fairly rare), the request of the
government authority supersedes NWS authority. The net normally
transfers at this point, to come under RACES/FEMA authority. The NWS
should be notified if this should occur. Spotter reports of significance
would still be sent to the NWS. The NWS still retains the exclusive
authority to issue all watches and warnings; but a local County
Emergency Manager, for example, can override the NWS on a local level
and sound warning sirens, etc. at his/her discretion.

A basic misunderstanding frequently occurs in new ARES/RACES groups. You do not have to wait for a NWS public watch or warning statement to be issued before you start a weather net!
If the weather is presenting a local threat that is making a number of
you nervous, start a standby weather net!! Don’t call it a SKYWARN net.
Don’t issue any watches or warnings on your own. Just announce that a
standby weather net is in progress . . . that you are beginning to track

Regardless of whether a net is directed and formal or an informal standby net, only one person should be responsible for reporting conditions to the NWS. The NWS frowns on multiple, identical reports. Multiple reports make our efforts look totally disorganized.

Standby nets can be a very informal information gathering process
that will help immensely if, and when, the NWS issues a watch or
warning. If conditions really get nasty, formalize the net and notify
the NWS that you have a net in progress; and why. The NWS should never
complain about this activity; indeed, they should be grateful; and they
have no right to complain. Your right to communicate and have nets for
the benefit of the public is under FCC jurisdiction and authority . . .
not NWS authority.

Standby nets are generally run under condition “Green”. This is the
lowest weather priority. Condition “Green” is also used during a
thunderstorm Watch. When an official Watch is issued for a particular
locale, nets covering a location experiencing adverse weather effects
can go to condition “Yellow” and begin using the word “SKYWARN” as a
descriptor. When an official Warning is issued, nets usually go to
condition “Red.”

Local NCS’s may upgrade/downgrade a condition code on their own; in
accordance with local conditions and for the safety awareness of their
Spotters. NCS operators should be very careful to phrase an
upgrade/downgrade statement to the net; so that it doesn’t represent, or
sound like, an official public Watch or Warning statement. A simple
statement such as:”This net is now changing to condition Yellow alert
and safety status.”, will suffice.

The NWS does not have to activate their in-house amateur radio station just because you have started a stand-by weather net.
Ask them if they are going to activate it. If they say “No”, thank them
for the information and use the telephone for any further
communications. Never underestimate or overlook the value of a working

The NWS recognizes that their radar has severe limitations and that
with their current radar technology, they will never be able to see what
is happening at the all important lower elevations between zero and
4000 feet for more than just a few miles.

Only a spotter can actually observe and report the effects of hail,
wind velocity, gust fronts, funnel clouds, wall clouds, downburst
activity, rotation, and tornadoes. The NWS radar can’t actually see any
of these things. Their radar can only indicate a relative location of
conditions at higher elevations that are known to be conducive to these
things occurring at lower elevations.

The spotter becomes increasingly more important to the NWS and the
public as the distance from the radar site increases. Even at minimal
radar take-off angles, at a distance of 40 to 100 miles, the radar image
may be well above any, or most, significant ground effect storm
activity. This is one major reason that a NCS must keep track of all
spotter locations. Knowing a spotter’s exactlocation helps the NWS know
where to look for developing patterns.

Return to top


ARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service) nets are held under
auspices of the ARRL and in accordance with national and local MOU’s
between the ARRL, local ARRL organizations, and many served agencies.
These nets usually serve agencies like the American Red Cross, Salvation
Army, and other non-governmental agencies. They are widely used in
Public Service Events. SKYWARN nets are usually run under the ARES flag .
They are nearly always directed nets, with varying degrees of net
discipline, held on local repeaters, FM simplex, and HF frequencies.
The level of formality is set by the NCS.

Net Control Stations for these nets are usually located at an agency
command post. Field stations and operators can be required. Served
agencies will usually want a communications link established to an even
higher organizational level within their agency. This is especially true
of the Red Cross. Be prepared to establish long distance communications
in addition to local communications. Expect the necessity to establish
communications liaisons with other agencies and a RACES EOC. ARES NCS
operators should be RACES qualified and should be familiar with the
Incident Command Structure (ICS).

Return to top


RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service) nets are a bit different.

1. They are federally sponsored by FEMA and can only be activated by a
governmental official. This appointed or elected official can be at a
local, State, or Federal level. It is usually a County Emergency
Manager, Sheriff or the State Police.

2. A RACES net, under current law, can only have RACES membership. An
operator must be RACES qualified in order to participate. To become
qualified, an operator must take a simple, short course of instruction
available from FEMA. The text for the course and the open book test are
now available on the Internet; from FEMA. You can take the test
interactively on the Internet. Contact your EC or RO (FEMA Radio
Officer) for further information. Your EC/RO will guide you through the
simple RACES application process

3. As a general rule of thumb, during a RACES net, you cannot communicate with a non-RACES station.
This is a topic of considerable debate. Some individuals and groups
claim an interpretation of the rules that allows communication with
non-RACES stations. This is predicated on permission being granted by a
government official for such communications. We will not debate this in
this manual. The following is a direct quote from the part 97 FCC rules.
We will let you decide.

“Subpart E – Providing Emergency Communications

97.407 (c) A RACES station may only communicate with:

  1. Another RACES station;
  2. An amateur station registered with a civil defense organization;
  3. A United States Government station authorized bythe responsible agency to
    communicate with RACES stations;
  4. A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever such communication is
    authorized by the FCC.

(d) An amateur station registered with a civil defense organization
may only communicate with:

  1. A RACES station licensed to another civil defense organization with which
    the amateur station is registered;
  2. The following stations upon authorization of the responsible civil defense
    official for the organization with which the amateur station is registered:


    • (i) A RACES station licensed to another civil defense organization;
    • (ii) An amateur station registered with the same or another civil defense
    • (iii) A United States Government station authorized by the responsible
      agency to communicate with RACES stations; and
    • (iv) A station in a service regulated by the FCC whenever such
      communication is authorized by the FCC.

(e) All communications transmitted in RACES must be specifically authorized
by the civil defense organization for the area served. Only civil defense
communications of the following types may be transmitted:

  1. Messages concerning impending or actual conditions jeopardizing the public
    safety, or affecting the national defense or security during periods of local,
    regional, oar national civil emergencies;
  2. Messages directly concerning the immediate safety of life of individuals,
    the immediate protection of property, maintenance of law and order, alleviation
    of human suffering and need, and the combating of armed attack or sabotage;
  3. Messages directly concerning the accumulation and dissemination of public
    information or instructions to the civilian population essential to the
    activities of the civil defense organization or other authorized governmental or
    relief agencies; and
  4. Communications for RACES training drills and tests necessary to
    ensure the establishment and maintenance of orderly and efficient
    operation of the RACES as ordered by the responsible civil defense
    organizations served. Such drills and tests may not exceed a total time
    of 1 hour per week. With the approval of the chief officer for emergency
    planning the applicable State, Commonwealth, District or territory,
    however, such tests and drills may be conducted for a period not to
    exceed 72 hours no more than twice in any calendar year.”

If that doesn’t confuse you, you are a lawyer.

4. These are always directed nets; requiring fairly tight net discipline.

5. The Net Control Station is nearly always located in a
pre-designated Emergency Operations Center (EOC). If the EOC is ill
equipped, put your NCS somewhere else. Expect to deal with a number of
agencies and manage communications liaisons with most of them. NCS
operators will normally be reporting directly to the EC/RO.

Note: (If an EOC is poorly equipped, the EC should work
closely and creatively with the local Emergency Manager to solve this

6. RACES NCS operators and net participants should be familiar with the Incident Command System (ICS).

7. Participants in RACES activities are covered by their State’s Disability/Workman’s Compensation Structure.
Recent changes in Federal law also gives participants increased, but
limited, liability protection against the possibility of being sued for
actions they might take as emergency volunteers.

8. A RACES training net is currently limited by law, to one hour of airtime per month. A RACES training net may be called or initiated by the RO.

Note: Participation in RACES operations can involve taking
direct orders from public service agencies and governmental officials.
If you are steadfast in your belief that you are a volunteer, and that
volunteers don’t have to take orders, the author suggests that you think
long and hard before becoming involved with RACES. When you sign a
RACES application, you are basically signing a contract with the
government and agreeing to do what you are told, during a RACES
controlled event.

Standby nets are one of the most often used
and most useful tools available to the amateur radio community. They can
be started in open or directed format. They can be started and run by
anyone and offer an excellent opportunity for NCO trainees to become
exposed to running an actual, “almost emergency” net. The standby net
allows a monitoring, qualified NCO to get organized and get into the
flow of the event, without having to actually run the net. It also gives
the trainee an on-line coach to fall back on for advice. When the
qualified NCO feels that it is necessary to take over the net because of
escalating circumstances or the inability of the trainee to continue
efficiently, the transfer is seamless.

Big events, usually under RACES, are most often run using the
Incident Command System. The ICS uses a different form of a standby net.
It is called a Resource Net. These nets are always directed and it’s no
place for a rookie. They are literally “collection point” or “staging
area” nets where excess personnel, relief schedules, lists of equipment,
lists of supplies, etc. are kept in some semblance of order. This is
the “Supply Sergeant” of a big event. This is also the net that
participants check into when they become available to work the event.
The resource net control makes assignments, gives instructions, and
directs the flow of available resources. The Resource NCS receives
requests for transportation, equipment, supplies and personnel from a
front-line Tactical Net, the Command Net, and outside served agencies.

You need experience, outstanding organizational skills, a cool head,
and several assistants to be an effective NCO for a major ICS agency
net. While we should train for this position in the event that we could
be called on, it is normally handled by a professional dispatcher . . .
with the amateur NCS filling in the communications “holes”.

The amateur radio participation level in big disasters, like
hurricanes, may be large enough that it will require it’s own Resource
Net. These nets have extreme value in smoothing out the flow of
communications, personnel, and equipment. They simplify the operation
and drastically reduce the stress level for tactical and command NCO’s.

Tactical nets are used after an event has
occurred or during and after a lengthy event. They are found on the
“front lines” of response, disaster assessment, recovery and Search and
Rescue operations. There may be several of these nets running at the
same time; on different frequencies and from widespread locations . . .
all reporting to a “master” Tactical NCS at the EOC. Stress safety to
your people. Recovery operations are very dangerous. Everyone is
excited, in a hurry, confused, and in an unnatural situation . . . a
dangerous combination. It is very easy to step on a nail and become
another casualty.

Command Nets are encountered in all large
disasters or emergencies. This is a communications net established to
keep the top “executive board” of emergency officials informed. They are
also used by fire departments and police agencies during smaller, local
events. They are run in accordance with the Incident Command System,
(ICS), which will be addressed later in this document. It would be rare
for amateurs to be involved directly in one of these nets, but fairly
common for amateur nets and sub-nets to be reporting certain information
to a command net. For now, just be aware that they exist and that they
are the guys who are really running the show..

Return to top

Amateur Radio Public Service Corps, (ARPSC) nets

ARPSC nets can be held at the ARRL Section, District, and Local
levels. These are information nets. Participants are informed of ARRL
policies, news, events, and appointments. These nets represent an
excellent training opportunity and should be held weekly. These are
always directed nets.

This author firmly believes that all ARES/RACES organizations should
hold their own weekly nets for the purpose of advancing the state of
readiness for all personnel. This is a tremendous opportunity to address
local organizational and educational issues and weaknesses. It is a
waste of time to hold one of these nets and not do some training.
Training should be no longer than 15 minutes in length. Short
simulations of correct vs. incorrect communications and content can be
very informative and a lot of fun.

The weekly rag-chew or club net is another excellent place to break
in a NCO trainee. These nets can be run in nearly any fashion . . . open
or directed. Most of the time, they are run as a directed net in a
relaxed atmosphere. These are great training grounds for Net Control

IMPORTANT NOTE: ARES/RACES and Weather nets and activities should not be run as local club events; unless that “club” has been formed, separate and apart . . . as an independent ARES/RACES organization. The EC or RO must
be the final leadership authority in such an organization. An elected
local club official should never be in a position to challenge the
authority or leadership of an EC/RO in an ARES/RACES emergency event,
weather net or emergency test.

Return to top


An actual emergency requires an experienced and, possibly, certified
operator in the position of Net Control Station. Unfortunately, there
are few certification/training programs around.

There has been little, if any attempt, to standardize minimum levels
of experience and knowledge for net control operators. Altogether too
often, the NCS winds up being manned by whoever was available to be
pushed into the hot seat when the stuff hit the fan. . . qualified, or

Your organization should establish what it believes are minimums in
order to qualify an individual for the responsibilities of running an
emergency net. This manual will give some guidance.

Not everyone is cut out to be a net control operator. Those who would
not be considered good net leaders usually are not interested in
becoming emergency net controllers. This is a fortunate natural
phenomenon. Nothing can be tougher than to have to develop the diplomacy
to tell someone who has tried their best, that they probably will never
be qualified because something in their personality, physical condition
or basic intelligence will forever keep them from being effective. This
is not to say that the physically challenged, or handicapped, cannot be
effective NCO’s. Two of the finest emergency net controllers this
author has ever heard, are legally blind.

Some of the characteristics that are desirable in a net control operator are:

  • Good voice quality – with an air of authority; without sarcastic overtones or being overbearing.
  • Sense of control and self-assuredness.
  • Decisiveness and the maturity to make good judgment calls.
  • Knowledge of band characteristics
  • Knowledge of common equipment
  • Good basic communications skills and fluent command of language
  • Ability to absorb new terminologies quickly
  • Knowledge of the ICS
  • Physical condition that will tolerate high stress for extended periods of time
  • A strong team player and organizer
  • Good hearing capabilities
  • Good ear-to-hand copying skills
  • Good listening capabilities
  • Decent (readable) penmanship
  • Computer keyboard skills – touch typing
  • Generally “professional” appearance
  • Willingness to take and carry out direct orders
  • A cast-iron stomach and constitution that can exist on hot dogs, cold smashed sandwiches, soda pop and coffee for days on end
  • The ability to sleep in a rock quarry without bedding
  • Has a spouse who doesn’t care how much time is spent away from the family “playing radio”
  • Consistently demonstrates above average operating technique
  • Has general understanding of all MOU’s with served agencies
  • Constant concern for the safety of participants
  • Good sense of humor

Unless you are fortunate enough to get the author as a Net Control
Operator, you probably won’t find too many people with all of the above
listed characteristics. (Humor intended) The point is, that no two
people naturally have identical skill sets or personality assets.
Training must be devised and taught in order to enhance the
effectiveness of everyone. The training does not have to be complex or
sophisticated. . . just effective.

Return to top


This question will always be subject to local circumstances and
resources. Some areas have beautiful facilities in their County EOC’s
and the amateurs are encouraged to use those facilities in nearly any
way they choose. Some EOC’s are marginally equipped and have restricted
access. The best location for a NCS may not be at the EOC. In other
areas, no such public facility exists and the amateurs must rely
entirely on club stations or their own private stations. Whatever the
case may be, the following guidelines should be followed.

  1. Net control should always be located at a station that has a strong,
    commanding signal. The same is true of choosing a repeater to use. A
    NCS that can’t be heard is worthless. If you have taken temporary
    control of a net that is just beginning, do not transfer NCS duties to a
    weak or marginal station. If faced with a choice of a weak station
    manned by an experienced NCO or a strong station manned by an
    inexperienced NCO . . . go with the strong station and try to get an
    experienced operator to a strong station.
  2. The NCS should have the capabilities to communicate with served
    agencies. This could be by telephone, radio, liaison station, courier,
    CB, pony express, or whatever. Get your links set up as quickly as
  3. If at all possible, the NCS should have alternative, back-up power and a back-up rig.
  4. During short-term, violent events, an alternate NCS should be either
    pre-arranged or set up immediately to run parallel recording operations
    during the net. If the primary NCS should experience failure, the
    secondary would automatically assume net duties.

It is the duty of the EC and the Emergency Net Manager to see that
the best of resources is utilized for the NCS. If neither of these
individuals is available, either the scheduled NCO or assuming NCO
should see to it.

Ideally, your organization should have an Emergency Net Manager and a
roster/schedule of qualified NC stations and operators; with
alternates. This system helps assure that a NCS and NCO are always
scheduled for a specified period of time.

Return to top



Some people are not comfortable being in charge, and others seek out
opportunities to be in charge. Some are natural leaders and others have
to learn leadership skills.

Net Control Operators are perceived as leaders. Assuming a leadership
role means that you are also expected to assume responsibility. When
you are accepted as a leader, you are given a certain amount of
Authority by those who have accepted you. Use the given Authority wisely
and accept full Responsibility for your actions and Trust is built. The
greater the level of Trust that is earned, the more Authority and
Responsibility you are granted. The longer you produce positive results
within this balanced framework, the more you earn Respect.

Seeking a position, accepting the Authority, using it to build up
some kind of false personal image or power base, and wiggling wildly to
avoid Responsibility for your actions and all the while expecting
respectful adoration, is a fool’s game. The fool will be quickly found
out, scorned and run out of leadership and fellowship by those he
presumes to lead.

Be sure you want to lead for the right reasons.

There is nothing grand or glamorous about being a Net Control
Operator. It takes work to acquire the skills that make you appear
professional. It’s the kind of work that can wind up being a lot of
challenging and rewarding fun, if . . . you know what you are doing.

Return to top


There is little that can be said about making a decision regarding
what net format to use. You have to decide. Nothing is chiseled in
stone. You can change the net format from open to directed at any time
you think it is necessary. An open net is much harder to control;
because of it’s very nature. When you think you are losing control or
desire more control over the net, change the format to directed.

Return to top


One of the other items you must make a decision about in starting an
emergency net is the size of the net you are going to need. It’s a
judgment call all the way. It can change very quickly. If you think you
are only going to need a half dozen operators, start with a half dozen
but leave the door open for more if you need them. If it is a fairly
major event that is likely to grow, don’t hesitate to activate the
calling tree and wake up the world. They can always go back to bed. A
Weather net demands all the people you can get.

Don’t keep ninety hams hanging in the resource arena when all you
need is twenty. Give them a status report, thank them and release them.
Some will hang around anyway. There will nearly always be more
volunteers lurking and listening to net proceedings.

Return to top


Try to minimize your use of tactical call signs. If you are in an ICS
controlled event, the use of “Resource”, “Tactical”, “Command”,
“Main”,”Control”,”Shelter One”, etc. is easy for everyone to remember.
To assign everyone a tactical call sign is very confusing. Hams suddenly
forget what and how to ID. The use of call suffixes is highly
recommended. It is quick and familiar. If a ham forgets to use his
assigned tactical call, just gently remind him by leading. If he calls
in using KX8ABC after you assigned him “Shelter One”, just “Roger,
Shelter One” from you will be reminder enough.

Return to top


The level of net discipline is yours to set. You have to decide how
tightly you want the rules followed. Describe exactly what you want in
your net instructions. Most of the time, the net participants will sense
just how much urgency there is by how you are reacting. If you push up
the pace and become more clipped or terse in your responses, they will
follow your lead. If you are laid-back and relaxed, they will follow.
When you can, change the pace and have a little fun!

You are going to have the usual Bozo in your net. Count on it! Look
forward to it! It’s a challenge to your skills! Lead your Bozo back into
proper procedure by example and gentle reminder. Conducting on-the-job
training is part of your job. A good, non-sarcastic sense of humor is
invaluable. If you did a good job on your net instructions, you can
always repeat an applicable part of the net instructions as a general
reminder to the entire net. Do not address that reading of the
instructions directly at Bozo. Avoid direct confrontation with anyone.

NEVER dress anyone down on the air for a rules infraction. If
the problem persists, find a way to get Bozo off the air. Have him come
in and log or be a courier for you . . . as a special favor. The rest of
the net will be rolling in the aisles.

You are going to be in charge of a frequency. Your first duty is to
be sure that frequency is used in accordance with FCC Rules. Proper ID
at the ten minute mark can be difficult to remember in the heated
activity of a net but you and your participants have to do it. If you
can grab 30 seconds, hold a round-table ID session or an ID roll call in
which they answer you with their call sign. They will look forward to
it and stay on frequency.

Return to top


These requests can be a very valuable tool. They can save a lot of
valuable air time. They can also seriously disrupt the flow and control
of a net when abused. Cover what you expect these requests to consist of
in your net instructions. A good, quick response to one of these
requests is simply: “Make your call.”

Return to top


When you go to a directed format, you should be prepared to give net
instructions, or directives. Be specific. Practice writing exactly what
information you want passed in your net and how you want it passed.
Listen to other net controllers and pick up little goodies that they do.
Net instructions are very important to you and to the participants.
They give the net a defined purpose, content and method of operation.
Again, nothing is chiseled in stone. Net instructions can, will, and
should change with the intensity and duration of the net. Don’t change a
lot of little pieces of the net instructions. Inform participants that
you are giving an updated set of net instructions and give entire set

Whatever your instructions are, WRITE THEM DOWN! You need to
be able to refer to them for updates, as a personal reminder as to what
you last told them to do, and for repeats of instructions as needed.

Return to top


Net instructions are extremely important in weather nets. You
must be very firm and specific about what you want reported. If you
don’t, you will get “sunshine, flash-to-boom, and dewdrop” reports that
don’t mean anything to anyone. If you don’t explain at the outset, that
this is a thunderstorm watch … we expect clouds, rain, thunder and
lightning . . . and those things are not reportable unless rain
accumulation reaches flash flood danger or lightning strikes a person or
property . . . they will drive you nuts with weather drivel. If an
inexperienced spotter reports these things, thank them and simply read
that part of your instructions again. Start your reading with something
like: “The net is reminded ………” They will get the idea sooner or

Net instructions for weather nets should contain strong
discouragement of storm chasing. It is a very dangerous practice for
professionals. It is potentially deadly for the average spotter; who
believes he is above average. Spotting and Driving do not share a common
meaning. The author is about to the point that he will refuse to
recognize a spotter who is deliberately chasing. It makes for an
impossible safety program for the NCS when he doesn’t know exactly where
everyone is. Part of the job of the NCS is to keep spotters out of
harm’s way. This is impossible when eight or ten hot-dog, stupid
spotters are driving willy-nilly into the active center of a storm. Park
them and keep them parked . . . or refuse to use them. They too, may
get the idea sooner or later.

Return to top


This is not something you should copy and use directly. It is only a sampling of content possibilities.

“This is KB8ABC, and I will be acting as net control for the
duration of the weather event that is current in our coverage area. This
will be a directed net. All communications are to be addressed through
net control. The NWS has issued a Severe thunderstorm watch for the
following counties ______ , _______, ________. At this time we are
condition green.(yellow, red). Your check-in instructions are as

  1. When checking into the net, please give your call sign, name,
    location, mobile or stationary status, direction of travel if mobile and
    how long you will be available.
  2. If you must leave the net for any reason, please notify net control

“I will now take check-ins for this weather net.”


Attention all net stations!! This is KB8ABC, net control …. please stand by for net instructions.”

“The instructions for this net are as follows: This is a Severe
Thunderstorm Watch. We expect rain, thunder and lightning, wind and low
cloud formations. The following items are the only reports that net
control wishes to hear from Spotters; please use only the suffix of your
call when calling net control:

  1. Report all hail . . . regardless of size.
  2. Report only winds measured or estimated to be over 50 MPH.
  3. Do not report lightning unless it hits a person, building, electric services or causes damage resulting in blocked roadways.
  4. Rainfall is NOT to be reported unless accumulations threaten flash flooding.
  5. Wall Clouds with confirmed rotation are to be reported.
  6. Funnel clouds are to be reported.
  7. Tornadoes are to be reported.
  8. Thunder is not important and is not to be reported.
  9. If you are stationary, do not move without notifying net control; unless you are in imminent danger.
  10. If you are mobile, do not engage in Storm Chasing. Mobiles that
    must remain moving will please report their location to net control
    every 15 minutes.
  11. Do not go mobile unless it is to go to your pre-assigned stationary viewing area.
  12. If you are in a convertible, please do not observe from inside your vehicle. Seek a shelter from which you can observe safely.
  13. All reports should follow the TEL (Time, Effect, and Location) reporting procedure.
  14. Priority and Emergency transmissions must meet standard definitions and will be handled immediately by Net Control.
  15. Consider your own safety at all times.
  16. Only your direct observations are reportable. Commercial radio
    or TV weather reports, radar descriptions, or police and fire department
    transmissions that you hear on scanners, are not reportable on this

“This concludes net instructions at this time. I will repeat the
net instructions from time-to-time. Please listen carefully to the net.
Instructions can change quickly with events. This is KB8ABC, standing
by for Spotter reports.”

Time permitting, you can take more check-ins to the net. Each time
you take in a new group of Spotters, you should repeat the net

The above is only an example. Tear it apart. Modify it. Put it back
together. Embellish it. The important thing is that you practice writing
examples like it; so that you get used to thinking ahead about what you
want from the net participants. The better your instructions are, the
smoother the net will run, the more professional it will appear to the
world, and the more control you will have

Return to top


Good NCO’s use net announcements regularly. Net announcements do not
have anything to do with Net Instructions. They are merely a way of
keeping the net participants informed of events and operational changes.
Net announcements keep them reminded, interested, awake, and on

Some of the things you can put into your announcements are:

  • Safety reminders
  • Frequencies of Sub-Nets and Liaison Stations
  • Current events regarding the emergency. Be careful not to air exact
    locations of casualty occurrences or the known names of casualties.
  • Short term weather forecasts
  • Encouragement and praise to the poor guys standing in the rain, etc.
  • Shift Schedules
  • Eating Schedules and Food Source Locations
  • Short break relief rotations
  • Locations of restrooms available
  • Travel/transportation hazards
  • Safe/Approved travel route
  • Termination/Activation of emergency sub-activities
  • Humorous happenings
  • Equipment/battery check
  • ID sessions
  • Relays of personal messages from family to participant

Boredom sets in with a vengeance in many nets, and in a relative
short time. Use your net announcements to keep it interesting. If your
people don’t have anything to listen to on the net, they will wander off
frequency looking for something of interest or shut their radios off to
conserve power.

Return to top


The untrained observer can be a lot of fun. He/she will test your
patience, communications skills and teaching abilities to the max. The
untrained observer will, most commonly, be found somewhere in a weather
net. They really don’t know that they are supposed to know exactly where
they are, what they are seeing, what they are supposed to report, how
to report it, how a net works, that the rubber duck on their HT is
really just a dummy load on a stick, or that their spare battery pack
needs to be charged once in a while whether it gets used or not.

Be gentle with them. Teach them by prefacing all questions and
comments with something like, “KZ8ABC, thanks for your input . . . on
this net we usually . . . OK?”, and proceed to teach them without them
knowing it. If things are going hot and heavy in the net, tell the
station to stand by and go back to him when you get a little break. If
you are clever and have the time, you can entertain and re-educate the
entire net regarding proper operating procedures; without hurting the

Fun Suggestion: Find someone in your club or organization who was a
Radio Telephone Operator (RTO) in an artillery outfit. Have them tell
you how the military taught them to handle an untrained forward
observer. Take some of those ideas and work them into the beginning or
end of your next DF Fox Hunt. Mixed with a few scavenger hunting
techniques that have nothing to do with radio, it can be a real brain
teaser and it’s a great equalizer between the guys with Doppler and the
guys with the coffee cans and garbage can covers

Return to top


This is one of the toughest things you are going to face. If handled
incorrectly, it can cause net participants to “take sides” and erode the
morale and effectiveness of your net. People get their feelings hurt
over nothing, especially when they are tired and under unusual,
stressful circumstances. Your first reaction may well be to retaliate in
an upset manner. This will blow the net. Here is a formula to cure the problem:

1. Slow up. Don’t respond instantly. Take a deep breath.

2. Do a quick personality review of your assailant.


3. Acknowledge the problem. Give in to the “Problem”. Whether
they are right or wrong! This acknowledges that there is a problem and
that you are recognizing that fact. It also throws them off balance.
They are not expecting this. Once you agree that there is a problem, the
“fight” is gone.

4. Empathize with them! Whether you understand or not, tell
them that you can understand how they can feel that way and that under
the same circumstances, you would probably feel the same way.

5. Ask them for a quick and simple suggestion for a solution.

#6. Listen intently! This is where they will reveal the real
problem. Everything they have said up to now may have been a loud
smokescreen. Somewhere in their suggestion, they will tell you what they
really want from you.

7. If their suggestion/solution is something reasonable, tell them
that you will try to put it into play. If it is not, make a
counter-suggestion that will satisfy the real problem that they have
revealed to you.

. 8. If the problem cannot be resolved quickly and reasonably,
quietly send someone to replace this individual and relieve him from his
post. If there are no posts involved in the operation, give up … let
him win . . . politely explain that the net must continue, thank the
person for his services, and tell him he doesn’t have to stick around.
You tried to solve the problem reasonably and he refused. He wins the
fight and you won the battle. The rest of the net will respect what you
did and morale will remain intact.

Return to top


“Emergency” calls have the highest priority of all calls you may
receive. “Priority” calls have the second highest. Whenever you hear a
call on the net that begins with the words “Priority” or “Emergency”,
you must stop the net cold in it’s tracks and give your undivided
attention to that call. No routine transmissions are allowed until you
announce that normal net activity is to resume. Say something like:
“Please hold all routine traffic until emergency traffic is cleared.”
The “Emergency” call is the only call that is authorized to interrupt
the handling of a “Priority” call. If by some weird circumstance you
should ever be involved in handling a Priority call and you should
receive an incoming Emergency call, tell the Priority call to stand by
and handle the Emergency call immediately. Then go back and finish up
with the Priority call.

Here is the difference:

“Emergency” calls mean that if the call is not answered immediately, there is a definite, severe and “RIGHT NOW” condition or hazard that will result in death or serious injury to a person or people.

“Priority” calls mean that if the call is not answered
quickly, a possible and probable hazard or condition exists, or is
developing, that could, might, or may result in loss of life, injury to people, or severe damage to property.

Return to top


Liaison stations are very important in many nets, especially
large-scale nets or those spread over a wide area. They are invaluable
in a net that is serving several different agencies. As NCS, you can
create Liaison Stations “on the fly” as you need them.

What a liaison station does, is act as an answering service and
garbage filter for the main NCS and a served agency. It monitors what is
happening on a sub-net that is serving a particular agency on a
frequency separate from the NCS. The liaison station may act as a
semi-silent net control for the group of hams doing the work at that
agency. He handles a lot of the usual goofy questions for the group and
makes sure they have what they need. The workers know that he is their
contact man. In most cases, he also monitors the Main NCS Net. When
important stuff comes through from either side, the liaison station
passes it to the other party. This entire process is designed to lighten
the load on the main NCS. Instead of constant and confusing chatter
from 30 to 100 hams, the NCS is dealing with 5 or 6 liaison stations.
The use of various tone-encoding schemes by the main NCS can
significantly reduce the chatter for the liaison stations as well.

Situations are encountered, particularly in weather nets, where the
distance from one area to another is too great for effective direct
communications and repeater linking is either not possible or
inadequate. In this case, a liaison station may be used to relay only
specific information between the two sites. This requires two
transceivers, sometimes on different bands, outstanding antennas and,
possibly, amplifiers. The operator must have outstanding operating
skills and be very well trained. A simpler method is often used. The
liaison station may just monitor repeater activity and report the
appropriate information to the second site by way of telephone. Because
of their fascination with radio, hams often overlook the value of a
working telephone.

Return to top


A net can rapidly expand into too many functions for one NCS to
handle. The worst and busiest time for a NCS is usually right at the
beginning of an event. When the action begins to get out of hand, you
should consider setting up a Sub-Net to handle some of the traffic.

When you put out the call for a volunteer to act as a Sub-Net NCS, be
prepared to give that operator specific net instructions. This way, he
knows exactly what you want him to handle.

One of the first sub-nets you should consider is a Resource net. This
net will handle the check-ins/outs, equipment list, duty assignments,
shift relief, and transportation problems for you. When you get a call
from an agency requesting two hams with HT’s and extra batteries, you
call the Resource NCS and he will handle it. He will report to you when
they have been dispatched and when they arrive.

When you receive a call for five teams of five individuals each to
help with damage assessment, call the Resource net NCS and have him set
up a Tactical Net. The Resource net gets the people, equipment and
transportation and has those people report to the new Tactical NCS.
Tactical NCS will report only priority messages to you. If he needs
additional people or equipment, he calls the Resource net.

Let’s say that the Resource NCS is now feeling that he is about to
loose control. Transportation is getting to be a major bottleneck for
him. He can check with you, (you have now become the Command, or Main,
NCS), and tell you that he wants to start his own Sub-Net to handle
transportation. You say to go ahead. He then gets a volunteer to be NCS
for the new Transportation net. The Transportation NCS will report
directly to the Resource net NCS. When the Transportation net is all set
up, the Resource NCS informs the Main NCS. Main NCS puts out a general
announcement that there is now a Transportation Net. Now, if anyone,
anywhere in your network, needs transportation, they call the
Transportation NCS.

Return to top

YOU DIDN’T KNOW YOU KNEW – The ICS lights go on!

If you understand the Sub-Net process, you now understand the basics
of the Incident Command System! There is no mystery about the ICS. The
only difference between what was just described and the ICS is that the
ICS has automatic overload prevention. The ICS has a defined chain of
command and authority, and is designed to automatically split big and
growing tasks into smaller, specialized tasks before the whole thing
gets too big for any one person or group to control. It uses something
called a “span of control” to trigger the automatic split. As soon as a
leader is faced with more than 5 to 7 people or agencies reporting to
him, the system splits; and some of those people or agencies begin
reporting to someone else with the authority to handle their problems.
Police and Fire Departments are heavy users of the ICS. The Red Cross
has it’s own version of the ICS.

Hams get confused when they are suddenly told by a served agency
authority to begin reporting to what appears to be another agency or
division of an agency. Just do it! The ICS has split and you have a new
boss. No big deal. Just inform your own NCS of what is going on (he
probably already knows) and keep doing what you have been doing.

Return to top


Take frequent breaks during your tour as NCS. If you begin to wonder
if you should take a break, you need one. Turn it to one of your
assistants for a while. The net won’t fall apart. Experienced NCO’s will
tell you that a two hour stretch is just about maximum without a break.
A four hour shift is considered maximum. A six hour shift is considered
to be the beginning of a self-destruct sequence. It is a very stressful
position to be in. You will start running on adrenaline and caffeine
and not even know it. Be sure you eat regularly and take in plenty of
fluids. If your blood sugar or electrolytes get out of balance you will
get the “dingies” and become short tempered and/or silly.

Return to top


Copying call signs

One of the greatest fears for a new trainee to overcome is that of
copying that flurry of check-ins at the beginning of a net. Ear-to-hand
coordination is difficult to master for some people. As NCO, you can ask
for a slow pace and lots of space between check-ins.

Studying for your Morse Code Exams will help a great deal. It’s all Ear-to-hand coordination.

Another way to practice is to listen to all the nets that you can.
Copy the call signs as best you can as they come in to the net control.
Don’t worry about getting all of them. Get what you can. Just keep
going. If you have access to an HF receiver, some of the hottest,
fastest, nastiest check-ins that you will ever hear are on the various
traders nets. When you can copy ten or fifteen call signs out of a “Big
Guns” check-in in 15 seconds, you are almost a master! The first time
you hear one, it’s guaranteed to blow your mind!

Another source of practice is to tune into a contest on the weekends.
Listen to how an experienced contester handles a pile-up. He will copy
as many stations as he can get down out of a burst of calls that fly at
him, he will the say “I’ve got a group” and then quickly list, verify
and work those calls in order. If he missed one, so what? They will try
again and he will likely get them on the next burst of calls. Copy right
along with him. Get all you can. The noise and multiple signals all
jammed up together will make it difficult at first but not impossible.
It will make it a piece of cake to pick out both sides of a double or
triple when you go back to that nice clean FM signal on the repeater.

Return to top

Writing it down

When you are NCS, you are always writing something down. You are
taking an NTS message, writing your next announcement, making notes,
logging net activities, taking check-ins/outs, making lists, etc.

While you are listening to any net, practice taking notes of what is
going on. Your own brand of shorthand will emerge. This will help you
immensely when it comes time for you to take on your first NCS

Some prefer to do their notations on a computer. That is OK. But . . .
you should always plan and train for a worst-case scenario. What if you
don’t have power for the computer? How good are your ear-to-hand
skills? Running a pencil at twenty words per minute is a whole lot
different from typing at fifty words a minute. The personal shorthand
will change.

Return to top

Practice listening.

Sounds kinda dumb? Bad signals abound in amateur radio. Even on FM
repeaters, the rubber duck signal and fringe area propagation noise is
abundant. You need to train your hearing to sort out the message from
the noise. Try detuning your 2 meter rig by moving 5 hz off frequency
and listen to the traffic on your favorite repeater. Try to make sense
out of that “bad” signal. You can do it!

Sit and listen for periods of time to any conversation on HF during a
distant weather disturbance. After a while, with concentration, you
hear right through the noise like it isn’t even there. With some
practice, you can turn this new- found ability on and off at will; and
with more practice it becomes automatic. You can suddenly hear those
marginal stations on the repeater. Your ears only get part of what is
said . . . your brain will fill in the blanks.

Return to top

Practice running nets.

Run the local rag chew net, ARPSC net, weather standby net, the
ARES/RACES net, and every other net you can weasel your way into
running. It’s all good practice. If a NCS training program is working
well in your area, there should never be a need to beg for a net control
for any net. If it’s working right, you will have to stand in line to
run a net.

Tape-record any net that you run. This is one of the best ways to
actually test your developing skills. You will be your own worst critic.
Keep the recordings for a few months. By comparing your performance of a
few months ago with what you are doing now, you can really see how you
are progressing and . . . they will become great sources of
entertainment and teaching tools for you in the future.

Return to top

Practice passing NTS messages

A net control operator must be able to pass NTS format messages! The
Radiogram form should be a “picture” in your mind. The ability to take,
pass and initiate NTS messages should be as automatic and natural as
eating. Pass them on your local rag-chew nets. Pass or initiate messages
everywhere; until it is second nature. Send your mother an “I love
you”. Dig out your address book! Send your friends messages across the
country! It doesn’t matter how much of a pest you think you are. Do it
until you have it
down cold!

Actually, you probably won’t get any negative comments. Non-hams
think these messages are pretty neat. It really is, if you stop and
think about it. How would you like to get a phone call from a complete
stranger with a “happy birthday” message from somebody you haven’t heard
from in years? By WHAT?. . . by ham radio? I can send a FREE reply?
Instant ego trip. Guess what they are going to talk about all day! Guess
what they might check out for a hobby!

Return to top

Practice writing Net Instructions

We have already covered the importance of doing this.

Return to top


By R. Bruce Winchell – N8UT

Reproduce freely

Your EC just woke you up in the middle of your favorite TV sporting
event. He wants you to start an emergency net from your shack. He is at
the EOC. There is a ruptured gas main in a heavily populated part of
town. Other than the location, he didn’t give you any more information.
You head for the shack, turn on the 2 meter rig, and grab a clipboard.
Your training kicks in. You begin asking yourself questions and writing
down the answers.

OK, broken gas main . . . police, fire, gas company, and EM involved .
. . possible evacuation . . . possible need to open shelter . . .
transportation possibly needed . . . likelihood of handicapped people in
the area . . . danger of asphyxiation . . . might go all night

1. What kind of net should I start?

  • Open?
  • Directed?

2. How many people am I likely to need?

3. How long do I estimate the event will last?

4. Do I need to hold some people in reserve for a shift change?

5. What agencies are likely to be involved?

A. Do we have special liaison people for these agencies?

6. Do I have any operators who live in the effected area?

7. Which way is the wind blowing?

8. What will be the safest route into the area?

Don’t have enough information. EC said he will call back with more.
Better find out what I have available right now. Pick up the mike and
announce that there is an emergency situation developing. Use Open
format standby net. Take check-ins. Ask two operators to go to other
local repeaters and recruit people for the upcoming net. Check-ins
begin coming in. Tell everyone to prepare for participation assignments.
Recruit someone to come to your shack to do logging and phone calls for

EC calls back. Says to prepare for an all-niter. You are going to
need relief shifts. Evacuation will take place. Need to activate Red
Cross shelter at high school. Red Cross has been notified. Wants voice
and packet for shelter. Requests 5 operators to report to staging area
to do head counts on city buses being used for evacuation. Needs 2 RACES
members to man 2 meter and packet stations at EOC ASAP.

Back on the air. Formalize the net. Request 2 RACES volunteers for a 4
hour shift at EOC . . . one has to be able to run packet. Recruit 2
more RACES volunteers to pick up the portable packet station stored at
the clubhouse and dispatch them to the high school shelter. Recruit 5
volunteers to handle head counts and assign one of them as team leader
to compile the reports. Send them into the area from the North.

Ask for volunteer RACES qualified base station close to the staging
area to liaison traffic from the staging area volunteers to the Red
Cross shelter on simplex so that HT’s can be run on low power to
conserve batteries.. Ask liaison station to relay only compiled totals
to NCS.

Request a qualified NCS volunteer to set up a resource net and two
shift reliefs on secondary repeater. Instruct all remaining individuals
not yet assigned to a task to check-in on the resource net. 8 minutes
… not bad …smooth as silk. Call EC and give progress report.

Can’t reach EC.

8 minutes, 15 seconds: Logging volunteer shows up. . . slightly drunk.

8 minutes, 30 seconds:Your wife informs you that the toilet is
plugged and she can’t find the handle to the plumber’s plunger. You
smile. It’s taped to the tower . . . holding your new wire antenna.

9 minutes: Your 6 year old tells you that there is a big fire
in a warehouse across town . . . he thinks it’s where you work . . .
it’s on TV . . . and a half mile upwind from the gas leak.

9 minutes 30 seconds: Over in the corner, under a big stack of
radio catalogs, the weather alert receiver begins to screech ….. it’s
tornado season.

9 minutes 50 seconds: The phone rings, your assistant drops
it, hiccups loudly, and then hands it to you . . . it’s the EC. The
telephone receiver is broken but you manage to understand that the EC
now wants you to set up a Skywarn sub-net and send out the Amateur TV
guys to the warehouse fire. You tell the EC, “No Problem”

10 minutes 30 seconds: Hang up the broken phone and call the resource net for manpower to fill the new requests. Resource NCS says “No Problem”.

11 minutes: Resource net calls back. One of the available ATV
guys is on his way to the shelter as the packet operator and the other
one is your hiccup afflicted logging assistant. The other ATV team is
out of town on an experimental, underwater, dual satellite linked ATV
Dxpedition near Easter Island . . . bunch of retired guys with too much
money. You console the frustrated Resource NCS and tell him to work it

12 minutes 10 seconds: You call the EC and tell him there will be a bit of a delay but there is “No Problem”.

12 minutes 40 seconds: You have your wife start pouring strong
coffee into your assistant. Maybe he will function a little better as a
wide-awake drunk?

13 minutes 5 seconds: Your pager goes off with a message from your boss telling you not to bother reporting for work in the morning.

13 minutes 8 seconds: Console wife about income loss by giving
her a hug and saying, “No Problem”, while patting her on the rump and
trying not to lose focus.

13 minutes 20 seconds: The computer printer connected to your
packet station begins spitting out paper. The packet station at the EOC
is still programmed to your station from the last test you did. Fast and
frantic search begins . . . and ends. The right software for it is in
your briefcase . . . at work . . . where the fire is . . .

13 minutes 35 seconds: The liaison station calls on the radio
to report that one of your staging area volunteers has just gone into
labor . . . her water broke and ruined her shoes; and he wants to know
if it is OK to let her go to the hospital.

13 minutes 55 seconds: The 16 year old kid, who took the test
10 times to get his Tech license, calls in a “priority” message on his
HT, with a half-dead battery, on the rubber duck, from 15 miles out of
town, to report that the wind just blew over the outhouse with grandma
inside. Grandma got confused after she rolled out of the outhouse and
fell in the pit. After 8 more broken transmissions, you find out that
grandma is OK . . . “but she smells !!! . . . sumthin’ awful!

Welcome to the first 15 minutes of an emergency net from inside a net control station.

Out on the resource net, there is much grumbling about going to bed . . .because nothing is happening!!

Page Last Updated, 05/09/09

Back to Communications Menu

Ready Alliance Radio Net Procedures & Guidelines

Ready Alliance when operating a net does so professionally in the manner of an EMERGENCY net. During practice nets we conduct regular business and practice emergency operating procedures. All RA nets are directed nets and net control stations are used.

At this point in time, RA is using repeaters owned by others for practice nets. The repeaters we use are ARES repeaters and if there were a real world emergency those ARES groups would like have their own nets going. We would likely participate, but it would not be and RA net. We are in the process of getting our repeaters up and hope to have it done very soon for our own emergency nets.

RA Net Records Procedures

A google sheets document is stored on the club google drive and shared with club members. When internet is accessible it is ideal to record directly to this sheet, as it is immediately updated so that all can see the check-ins. There is also a sheet within this document which is printable. This is to keep with your “ready kit” so that you can write if there is an emergency net where you don’t have internet access. You may also print a copy of this sheet for offline use from the members area.

The club net sheet has directions on how to fill it out.

Principles of VHF/UHF Net & Emergency Communications 

  • Keep the non-critical communications level down. 
  • If you’re not sure you should transmit, don’t. 
  • Study the situation by listening. 
  • Don’t transmit unless you are sure you can help by doing so. 
  • Don’t ever break into a disaster net just to inform the control station you are there if needed. 
  • Monitor established disaster frequencies. 
  • On voice, “EMERGENCY” is universally recognized. 
  • Avoid spreading rumors. If you don’t know it as a fact you have seen with your own eyes or heard with your own ears, don’t repeat it.
  • Use “plain language”, don’t use jargon, or any type of codes or signals.
  • Authenticate all messages. 
  • Strive for efficiency. Make transmissions brief. NEVER laugh, clear your throat or make other little noises ha, ahem, etc. These wastes of air time have no place on the radio.
  • Select the mode and band to suit the need. Voice modes are ideal in an emergency. In a real emergency non-voice digital modes such as FT8 or winlink messaging are worthless for in the field operations. Also in an emergency determine whether to use digital voice or analog voice based on who you wish to contact. Often analog may be more appropriate.
  • Know your ITU Phonetics. Making up your own phonetics and cause confusion. We have a universal set for a reason.

What is a net?

An Amateur Radio Net exists whenever 3 or more operators are in simultaneous contact with each other for the purpose of exchanging information or passing informal or official traffic.

The most important thing to remember about participating in a net is that it either is an emergency situation or it is practice for one and should be treated as such.

Types of Nets

  • Open Net – Stations call each other directly to converse or pass traffic.
  • Directed Net – Stations call only net control directly, go direct to other stations only with net control permission. 
  • Emergency Nets – Another of directed or formal nets is Emergency net. “Emergency” may be defined as an accident or other crisis where people and/or property are in distress. Emergencies are nearly always recognized and declared by agencies or authorities outside of the Amateur Radio Service. Amateur radio operators and net control stations do not have independent authority to declare an emergency. An Emergency Net is a group of stations who provide communication to one or more served agencies or to the general public in an emergency. Emergency nets may have different purposes and a given emergency may require one or more of these types of net. During a small operation, all functions may be combined into one net. SkyWarn and RACES are examples of emergency nets. Tactical, Command, Resource and Information nets are types of emergency functions used during an Emergency Net.
    • Command Net – Official traffic between OpArea command staff and between EOCs
    • Message Net – Official traffic on behalf of served agencies
    • Resource Net – Unofficial information and volunteer contacts
    • Tactical Net – Unofficial and official traffic of a local nature
    • Hospital Net – Official traffic with Dept. of Public Health
  • SkyWarn Nets – It is absolutely essential that all Net Control Operators be aware of and fully familiar with the SkyWarn activation process for their area and be fully trained by attending the NWS or Emergency Management training sessions for summer and winter weather. Weather reports on severe weather nets are limited to critical severe weather observations unless specifically requested by the net control operator.
  • ARES Net –  Amateur Radio Emergency System (ARES) nets are open to any licensed amateur radio operators. They may be originated by club or public service events. They may also serve agencies like the Red Cross, Salvation Army or any other non-governmental agencies. In a real world scenario an ARES net may be activated prior to an emergency and stay in place after.
  • RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service) nets have specific requirements for initiation and a discussion can be found in the Emergency Nets section. Weekly RACES training nets may be scheduled or initiated by the RO. Scheduled RACES nets may be used to conduct monthly Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Nets.
    • RACES Nets may last no longer than one hour per week.
    • RACES Nets are limited to actual RACES members, no others may check in. RACES nets may include public service partners and are governed by a section of part 97 which limits a tremendous amount of what they can do.
    • RACES is organized by local civil defense organizations.
    • RACES Nets will be active only during an emergency and the immediate aftermath.
  • Club Nets – The club net is another excellent place to break in a NCS trainee. Most of the time, they are run as a directed net in a relaxed atmosphere. These are great training grounds for Net Control Operators. They may be informational, training or just fellowship. Many clubs make check-ins to the club net part of participation requirements.
  • Traffic Nets – Traffic Net handles formal written messages in a specified format. The nets operated by the National Traffic System (NTS) are an excellent example of traffic nets.

What is a Net Control Operator/Station or NCO/NCS

The Net Control Station (NCS) runs the net. This person controls the flow of messages according to priority and keeps track of where messages come from and where they go. The NCS also keeps a current list of which stations are where, their assignments and what capabilities they have. In a busy situation, the NCS may have one or more assistants to help with record keeping.

  • NCS is in charge of the net and during the net has full control and authority over the frequency.
  • NCS activates and assigns resources.
  • NCS keeps track of resources.
  • NCS assigns tactical call signs.
  • NCS performs welfare checks of field operatives.
  • DOCUMENTS EVERYTHING (often NCS has someone at their side to do the recording of data)
  • REMEMBER to give your call every 10 minutes and advise you are not only net control but readvised what your net is. If a visitor stops by you want them to know what is going on. Also pause for break-in emergency traffic.

Tactical Calls

  • In amateur radio tactical calls are assigned to a position, not a specific person, this is usually assigned by the net control operator.
  • USE OF TACTICAL CALL DOES NOT REPLACE REQUIRED USE OF FCC CALL SIGN. You must still follow ID rules and ID every 10 minutes with an FCC assigned call sign.
  • Every Ready Alliance member (with voting privileges) has a tactical call sign even if they are not a HAM. We use tactical call signs across all communications methods including private radios. Your tactical call is your member number. You can look it up in the membership roster.


  • On HF checkins are done in alphabetical groups instead of a true Roll-Call.
  • This causes doubling and other issues on a repeater and therefore it is a more common practice to do a true roll-call using a roster on repeaters.
  • During a roll-call, roster style check-in, you should state your call, and if you have traffic for the net. This is your opportunity to make a brief announcement if you have one, or state that you have a longer announcement for after roll-call. Again, this is different than how it is handled in an HF scenario.

Participant Behaviors

  • Spend most of your time listening.
  • Know the nature of the net and when it is appropriate to seek permission to speak.
  • Respect directions of Net Control.
  • Respond quickly when called. You will be missed during roll call if you don’t answer immediately. If you are called on and don’t respond, not only is it a waste of everyone’s time, but in a real world emergency scenario someone will have to physically come make sure you are okay. You are either all in or you are out. If you can’t dedicate time to the net or need to leave, check out. For a practice, training or equipment check net, you can check in and out immediately just to show that you are there and your equipment works.
  • Use good annunciation. If requested, you can spell something out with phonetics. Usually phonetics aren’t needed on a repeater, but it could be requested if you have a weak signal.
  • AVOID superfluous comments.

What is someone else is using the frequency or repeater?

  • No one owns a frequency. Unless you have a legitimate emergency, if someone else is using the frequency you have no authority to “kick” someone off.
  • If the frequency is in use, try to call those in the conversation and request that they clear for a scheduled net. Use the best decorum you can. If they refuse, YOU must move to another frequency.
  • It is a good practice to announce ahead of time that your regular net is being held at whatever time on this frequency. Some use 15 min, some 5 and some countdown. As NCS you can do what you deem appropriate.

Malicious Interference/Jamming

  • Sometimes someone is trying to mess with you or someone doesn’t know what they are doing and are interfering.
  • IGNORE IT! Do not acknowledge it, just continue the net as normal. If possible raise your power and try to capture the repeater away from them.

Real World Emergency Nets

Don’t volunteer to participate in emergency comms until you have done the following:

  • Make sure your family is safe and secure
  • Make sure your family has needed provisions
  • Make sure the structure you and your family is in is secure and stable
  • Check your radio equipment to verify it is operating properly
  • Make sure you have power and your backup power is ready should power go out
  • Contact Net Control and await commands
  • DO NOT TAKE ACTION until you are told to by the appropriate authority
  • Have something prepared for taking notes
  • Make sure you have all necessary frequencies

Signal Strength & Reports


The term “full quieting” in ham radio usually signifies a good quality signal on a repeater or FM transmission – it means that your signal is clear, free of static, and easily readable by others.

The phrase Picket Fencing is used to describe the way an FM transmitter will cut in and out as it nears the capture threshold of a moving receiver or transmitter as it passes through fresnel zones, thus chopping the speech of the transmitting operator. It refers to the way portions of speech are stripped from the conversation, as if the listener was walking by a picket fence, and hearing a conversation on the other side that changes audibly depending on the position of the pickets relative to the listener.

This phrase is also used to describe the same audio phenomenon in digital voice modes which is caused by various methods including being on the fringe of a coverage range. In some digital modes this is caused by “packet loss”

Another term which isn’t as much about a signal report but rather why a signal could be bad is multipath. Multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results n radio signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting, ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from water bodies and terrestrial objects such as mountains and buildings. Just as it sounds the signal is taking multiple paths and can result in the same signal being received at the receiver at multiple time delays. Digital modes tend to be more susceptible to multipath.



Amateur radio users in the U.S. and Canada have used the R-S-T system since 1934. This system was developed by amateur radio operator Arthur W. Braaten, W2BSR. It reports the readability on a scale of 1 to 5, the signal strength on a scale of 1 to 9, and the tone of the Morse code continuous wave signal on a scale of 1 to 9. During amateur radio contests, where the rate of new contacts is paramount, contest participants often give a perfect signal report of 599 even when the signal is lower quality, because always providing the same signal format enables them to send Morse code with less thought and thus increased speed.

Obviously in phone or “voice” modes only the first R and S are used and often stated in the “5 by 9” fashion.

Readability Signal Strength
R1 Unreadable S1 Faint signals, barely perceptible
R2 Barely readable S2 Very weak signals
R3 Readable with difficulty S3 Weak Signals
R4 Readable with no difficulty S4 Fair signals
R5 Perfectly readable S5 Fairly good signals
  S6 Good signals
  S7 Moderately good signals
  S8 Strong signals
  S9 Extremely strong signals
T1 Extremely rough hissing note
T2 Very rough AC note, no trace of musicality
T3 Rough, low pitched AC note, slightly musical
T4 Rough AC note, moderately musical
T5 Musically modulated note
T6 Modulated note, slight trace of whistle
T7 Near DC note, smooth ripple
T8 Good DC note, just a trace of ripple
T9 Purest DC note

Plain-language radio checks

The move to plain-language radio communications means that number-based formats are now considered obsolete, and are replaced by plain language radio checks. These avoid the ambiguity of which number stands for which type of report and whether a 1 is considered good or bad. This format originated with the U.S. military in World War II, and is currently defined by ACP 125 (G), published by the Combined Communications Electronics Board.

The prowords listed below are for use when initiating and answering queries concerning signal strength and readability.

Proword Meaning
RADIO CHECK What is my signal strength and readability; how do you hear me?
ROGER I have received your last transmission satisfactorily.
NOTHING HEARD To be used when no reply is received from a called station.
Proword Meaning   Proword Meaning
LOUD Your signal is very strong. AND or BUT, depending on which prowords are combined CLEAR The quality of your transmission is excellent.
GOOD Your signal strength is good.   READABLE The quality of your transmission is satisfactory.
WEAK Your signal strength is weak.   UNREADABLE The quality of your transmission is so bad that I cannot read you.
VERY WEAK Your signal strength is very weak.   DISTORTED Having trouble reading you due to interference.
FADING At times your signal strength fades to such an extent that continuous reception cannot be relied upon.   WITH INTERFERENCE Having trouble reading you due to interference.
INTERMITTENT Having trouble reading you because your signal is intermittent.  


In the digital realm signal strength is irrelevant as it isn’t something that can be distinguished via the human ear. What can be reported upon is audio level which can be adjusted in a radio by the mic gain. Another item which can be reported on in some digital systems with forward error correction is packet loss. Basically the error correction isn’t able to piece the message together at 100% accuracy and therefore it results in choppy transmissions. We have all experienced this phenomenon with cellular telephones. This can be caused by many things, including weak signal, intermittent signal, multi-path and interference.

Amateur Radio Repeater Use Procedures & Etiquette

This is mostly for new HAMs but it’s a good review for all of us.

XID, using your call sign every 10 minutes and at the end of your transmission.
XLISTEN, listen, LISTEN! It is important to get a feel for who traffic is flowing on a repeater and how the current users are handling their conversation. You will always learn a lot by simply listening.
XPause between transmissions. “Quick keying” gives the appearance that other hams are unwelcome in your conversation, not to mention it prevents emergency traffic from breaking in.
XRepeaters can be open or closed. If a repeater is closed it is private to club users only. If you want to use that specific repeater, join the sponsoring club.
X Repeater communications should be kept to a minimum in case someone needs to use it for an emergency; always use simplex mode if you can.
Some repeaters are specifically for “rag chew” or just conversation. In these instances just make sure you are leaving an opportunity for others to get in.
X If you feel compelled to interrupt an existing conversation, remember that it is no more polite to do so on the air than if you did it in person.  Would you barge into a roomful of people engaged in a discussion without saying anything of interest? …or even worse, saying something completely unrelated to the topic of conversation?
XDon’t cough, clear your throat, laugh, or make little noises like hmmm or randomly saying yeah. Always be brief and don’t try to fill dead air. If you have nothing to say or nothing more to contribute back out of a conversation.
XXDon’t act like some sort of Broadcast Radio station.  Your fellow Amateurs  will most likely not appreciate such a blatant display of personal ego.
XWhen you need to break into a conversation, simply give out your call and wait for someone to acknowledge you.
XXIf you have an emergency, you may break into any communication on any frequency by saying EMERGENCY. Don’t use BREAK or BREAK BREAK, these aren’t universally understood. The word EMERGENCY is.
XTo make a call on a repeater to a specific person, give their call and then yours and wait for a response. If you suspect they may have a radio which is scanning, key up for a second before speaking and give their call twice before giving yours. Saying CQ on a repeater is frowned upon and may make you appear like a “newbie”.
XWhen doing a radio check, give your call and then radio check and wait for someone to call back. If you are just testing and don’t want a response, Give your call, then say testing, and then your call again and clear.
XKnow your own signal quality before responding to a signal or radio check. If you aren’t getting into the repeater or hearing it well, you aren’t going to be giving accurate information about someone else’s signal.
XThe word clear means someone is leaving their radio or shutting it off. Do not try to talk to someone after they have said they are clear.
X If one station calls another, and there is no answer, don’t be insulted if the calling station doesn’t respond if you “drop your call”. They may have been looking for someone specific and really aren’t interested in a general chat, or they may have moved to another frequency.
XXIt is no longer required by Part 97 to add mobile or portable to your call, but you will still hear those who do. While adding “mobile”, “portable”, or even “marine” isn’t required, there is certainly nothing wrong with continuing the practice. Doing so allows other to be aware of your circumstance and that you could drop out of range easily.
X Do not monopolize the repeater.  If 90 % of the conversations for long periods of time, night after night, include you and one or two others, something is wrong.  If other hams turn off their radios for big blocks of time because they can hardly talk to someone other than you, something is wrong.  You do not own, nor single handedly finance the repeater.  It is suppose to be a shared resource. Always welcome others into your conversations, don’t drive other people off the air.  You know who you are!
X Ignore those who cause interference and others who try to disrupt the repeater’s normal operation.  Without any reaction from the repeater users, they will have no audience and probably go away in short order.
X If you are someone who is the subject of frequent interference, it may be a sign that you are aggravating people with your operating habits.  This may be a sign that it is time for you to adjust your attitude and use of the repeater.  This isn’t always the case, but history has shown that those who have the most trouble with jammers are the ones who have caused the most friction among the repeater users.
XWhen IDing you don’t need to say “for ID” or anything of that nature. When you give your call everyone knows the reason for it. It is a waste of air time and redundant.
XBe upbeat and courteous.  Don’t complain.  This especially includes complaining about other hams, the repeater, or some aspect of the hobby.  We all deal with unsafe and discourteous drivers, please don’t describe their actions to us on the air.
XDo not use phrases learned on 11 meters such as “handle“, “making the trip“, “got a good copy on me?“, “the personal here is…“, “what’s your 20?“, “you’re giving me 20-pounds“, and other strange phrases which should stay on CB.  Speak plain English; this is not a cult.  The less said about 11 meters on the air the better. Many HAMs are a bit stuck up when it comes to CBers so it’s a good idea to avoid that lingo.
XXUse plain language that everyone understands. 2m and 70cm are interoperability bands. Q Signals and Radio short codes aren’t appropriate. 10 Codes, 12 Codes etc are never appropriate in Amateur Radio. Also on a repeater unless you have a weak signal phonetics aren’t usually necessary and take up precious air time. If requested, use them, otherwise don’t.

Part 97 rules forbid the use of coded transmissions in order to “obscure their meaning”. Anything you say on HAM radio must be able to be understood by all HAMs.
X Following a round-table, or rotation format is the best way for 3 or more to participate.  Don’t ignore people by not passing it to them for several turns.
XXDon’t kerchunk the repeater without IDing. It’s incredibly rude and illegal.
XAs with all amateur radio, NO politics, religion or sex.
XIt is not necessary to give the other person’s call when ending a conversation. This is wasted air time. The other person will give their call when they sign off. You will always hear the old timers do it this way.
XDon’t give out your call on a repeater and then just leave. Others might try to call you and this is incredibly rude. At least say clear so others know you are leaving.
X JUST BECAUSE OTHERS VIOLATE THESE GUIDELINES DOESN’T MAKE IT RIGHT. BE THE EXAMPLE OTHERS WILL FOLLOW. On that same topic, remember not to be the radio police. If others are violating these, don’t confront them on the air. Just be the example. Also remember, much of this is just a set of guidelines to help you be the best HAM you can be. Others may do things a bit different and most cases that’s okay.

Ready Alliance Amateur Radio Nets

The Ready Alliance Amateur Radio Nets are held on Wednesday nights. At this point we are holding two back to back. We welcome all licensed amateurs to check in. We also welcome those who are interested in joining our group to check in and find out what we are about. We have discussions about disaster preparedness.

Snowboard Net

Time: 7:00PM

Repeater Location: Wheeler Co, Oregon (KI7DEL)

Frequency: 146.6800MHz

Offset Direction & Frequency:  Negative 0.600MHz

Tone: 162.2Hz 

Southern Washington Net

Time: 7:30PM

LocationFrequencyOffset Direction & FrequencyTone
Jump off Joe, Benton Co, WA (N7LZM)145.410MHzNegative 0.6MHz100Hz
Hertzer Peak, Walla Walla Co, WA (AL1Q)146.960MHzNegative 0.6MHz74.4Hz
Whites Pass, Yakima Co, WA (KD7LZN)442.475MHzPositive 5MHz210.7Hz

Why we use GMRS

Many of our members are Amateur Radio Operators. Many interested in our group are as well. We have been asked by both members and perspective members why we use GMRS. It boils down to this. HAM radio is great. It’s a great resource and we all love it, but it’s not for everyone. Some people don’t have the knowledge, skill, or desire to get a HAM license. We of course encourage everyone to get one, and will help in any way we can. But GMRS is a great alternative.

GMRS is a paid license, not an earned. You simply pay your money and fill out a form and you have a license. To become a HAM, you must take a test and learn a lot of information. It also is a great resource because one license covers your whole family for 10 years.

Once licensed it’s quite similar to the HAM resources we use locally. We can put up repeaters, we can use 50 watt mobiles, we can even use CTCSS/PL Tones.

We do everything we can to include all of our members in everything we do. Communications is a large part of our mission, but we want to be as versatile with those communications as we can be. We us other methods as well.

It’s important to note though, that you must have a license to use GMRS. The rules have changed a lot lately, but there are rules which must be followed. Some like to demean GMRS as something for kids or something that which is on the fringe of legality or even that it is a lessor method of communication. HAMs (myself being one) can be stuck up at times toward other methods of communication such as GMRS, FRS, CB, etc. Our group frowns on this mentality. We try to practice and teach all methods, because in a true emergency, you never know what you might need to use.

In a true emergency you use what is available and has the best chance of getting through to deliver your message. All bands will be crowded in an emergency. Each has it’s power restrictions as well as limitations based on frequencies.

International Phonetics

The following are the phonetics which we use in amateur radio. You are likely to hear all kinds of craziness when we are in a hurry. These are the proper phonetics and you should practice them so that when you are hurried you will use the correct ones.

Continue reading

Local Nets

The following is a list of radio nets which are held in the local area. For those who are unfamiliar, a radio net is a “on air” get together. They can be formal or informal. Formal or directed nets have a “net control operator”. In this type of net, you don’t transmit until the net control operator request you to do so or if you have emergency traffic. Nets can be an informal “round table” discussion where it is handed off to the next operator who has checked in. Nets can be for discussion, traffic passing and handling, and the most common are emergency communications nets. These emergency communication nets are either in real emergencies like a disaster or bad weather, they may also be held on a regular basis to practice for disasters and test comms equipment.

Continue reading

73’s, a bit of background

Many amateurs already know that “73” is from what is known as the “Phillips Code”, a series of numeric messages conceived for the purpose of cutting down transmission time on the old land telegraph systems when sending text that is basically the same.

Continue reading

International Q Codes

Ever wonder what those HAM guys are saying when they say QSY or many of those other Q things they say? Well here is a list.

The Q-code is an international set of abbreviations that was created at the beginning of the last century to simplify radiotelegraph communication. Each code is composed by three letters always starting with Q. Each code can be a question if followed by a question mark or an answer (or statement) if not. To avoid confusion, no station call-sign begins with Q.

You will hear HAMs using Q codes on the air via voice, however this is not the place for it. Q codes are still used in CW communications, but using them on voice violates plain language principles not to mention it is jargon which can really chase new and perspective HAMs away. They have their place, it’s important to know where it is. Many HAMs still don’t, and I will be the first to admit, I was one of them until recently because I am not a CW guy.

Continue reading

GMRS Radios & Frequencies

GMRS has become the illusive service that some know about, some are curious about and some know nothing about. No matter where you fall, be careful of being too sure about what you know as much has recently changed with this service.

Continue reading

FRS Radios & Frequencies

So at some point everyone has seen a little radio like this. Campers, fishermen, families and even children use them. You can pick them up nearly anywhere, even Wal-Mart. They always advertise, “no license necessary”. This is very true, but that is about where the truth ends. There is a lot of false or misleading advertising that goes with these little radios. They do however have their place. As such, they are a resource we enlist, but we want folks to understand what they are for, what their capabilities are and what the rules are for operating them.

Continue reading

Ham Radio Terms

Not all of these are exclusively HAM, but they are terms HAMs should know and be aware of.

73 – Ham lingo for “best regards.”

Alternating current (ac) – Electrical current that flows first in one direction in a wire and then in the other. The applied voltage is also changing polarity. This direction reversal continues at a rate that depends on the frequency of the ac.

Amateur operator – A person holding a written authorization to be the control operator of an amateur station.

Amateur service – A radiocommunication service for the purpose of self-training, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by amateurs, that is, duly authorized persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without pecuniary interest.

Amateur station – A station licensed in the amateur service, including necessary equipment, used for amateur communication.

Ammeter – A test instrument that measures current

Ampere (A) – The basic unit of electrical current. Current is a measure of the electron flow through a circuit. If we could count electrons, we would find that if there are 6.24 × 1018 electrons moving past a point in one second, we have a current of one ampere. We abbreviate amperes as amps. (Numbers written as a multiple of some power are expressed in exponential notation, as shown here.

Amplitude modulation (AM) – A method of combining an information signal and an RF (radio-frequency) carrier. In double-sideband voice AM transmission, we use the voice information to vary (modulate) the amplitude of an RF carrier. Shortwave broadcast stations use this type of AM, as do stations in the Standard Broadcast Band (535-1710 kHz). Few amateurs use double-sideband voice AM, but a variation, known as single sideband, is very popular.

Antenna – A device that picks up or sends out radio frequency energy.

Antenna switch – A switch used to connect one transmitter, receiver or transceiver to several different antennas.

Antenna tuner – A device that matches the antenna system input impedance to the transmitter, receiver or transceiver output impedance. Also called an antenna-matching network, impedance-matching network or Transmatch.

Autopatch – A device that allows repeater users to make telephone calls through a repeater.

Balun – Contraction for balanced to unbalanced. A device to couple a balanced load to an unbalanced source, or vice versa.

Band spread-A receiver quality used to describe how far apart stations on different nearby frequencies will seem to be. We usually express band spread as the number of kilohertz that the frequency changes per tuning-knob rotation. Band spread and frequency resolution are related. The amount of band spread determines how easily signals can be tuned.

Band-pass filter – A circuit that allows signals to go through it only if they are within a certain range of frequencies. It attenuates signals above and below this range.

Bandwidth – The width of a frequency band outside of which the mean power is attenuated at least 26 dB below the mean power of the total emission, including allowances for transmitter drift or Doppler shift. Bandwidth describes the range of frequencies that a radio transmission occupies.

Battery – A device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

Beacon station – An amateur station transmitting communications for the purposes of observation of propagation and reception or other related experimental activities.

Beam antenna – A directional antenna. A beam antenna must be rotated to provide coverage in different directions.

Beat-frequency oscillator (BFO)-A receiver circuit that provides a signal to the detector. The BFO signal mixes with the incoming signal to produce an audio tone for CW reception. A BFO is needed to copy CW and SSB signals.

Block diagram – A drawing using boxes to represent sections of a complicated device or process. The block diagram shows the connections between sections.

Broadcasting – Transmissions intended to be received by the general public, either direct or relayed.

Call sign – Series of unique letters and numbers assigned to a person who has earned an Amateur Radio license.

Capacitance – A measure of the ability of a capacitor to store energy in an electric field.

Capacitor – An electrical component usually formed by separating two conductive plates with an insulating material. A capacitor stores energy in an electric field.

Centi – The metric prefix for 10–2, or divide by 100.

Chassis ground – The common connection for all parts of a circuit that connect to the negative side of the power supply.

Chirp – A slight shift in transmitter frequency each time you key the transmitter. Also a radio programming software commonly used in HAM radios.

Closed repeater – A repeater that restricts access to those who know a special code.

Closed, or complete circuit – An electrical circuit with an uninterrupted path for the current to follow. Turning a switch on, for example, closes or completes the circuit, allowing current to flow.

Coaxial cable – Coax (pronounced kó-aks). A type of feed line with one conductor inside the other.

Color code – A system in which numerical values are assigned to various colors. Colored stripes are painted on the body of resistors and sometimes other components to show their value.

Conductor – A material that has a loose grip on its electrons, so an electrical current can pass through it.

Connected – The condition in which two packet-radio stations are sending information to each other. Each is acknowledging when the data has been received correctly.

Continuous wave (CW)-Morse code telegraphy.

Control operator – An amateur operator designated by the licensee of a station to be responsible for the transmissions of an amateur station.

Control point – The locations at which the control operator function is performed.

Controlled environment – Any area in which an RF signal may cause radiation exposure to people who are aware of the radiated electric and magnetic fields and who can exercise some control over their exposure to these fields. The FCC generally considers amateur operators and their families to be in a controlled RF exposure environment to determine the maximum permissible exposure levels.

Core – The material used in the center of an inductor coil, where the magnetic field is concentrated.

Courtesy tone – A tone or beep transmitted by a repeater to indicate that it is okay for the next station to begin transmitting. The courtesy tone is designed to allow a pause between transmissions on a repeater, so other stations can call. It also indicates that the time-out timer has been reset.

CQ – “Calling any station”: the general call when requesting a conversation with anyone. Like many other telegraph terms which originated on the landlines, CQ was brought over into radio and used as a general call to all ships by the Marconi Company. Other companies used KA until the London Convention of 1912, which adopted CQ as the international general call or “attention” signal.

Crystal oscillator – A device that uses a quartz crystal to keep the frequency of a transmitter constant.

Crystal-controlled transmitter – A simple type of transmitter that consists of a crystal oscillator followed by driver and power amplifier stages.

CTCSS – Continuous tone coded squelch system. A sub-audible tone system used on some repeaters. When added to a carrier, a CTCSS tone allows a receiver to accept a signal. Also called PL.

Cubical quad antenna – An antenna built with its elements in the shape of four-sided loops. Current — A flow of electrons in an electrical circuit.

CW (Morse code) – A communications mode transmitted by on/off keying of a radio-frequency signal. Another name for international Morse code.

D region – The lowest region of the ionosphere. The D region contributes very little to short-wave radio propagation. It acts mainly to absorb energy from radio waves as they pass through it. This absorption has a significant effect on signals below about 7.5 MHz during daylight.

Data – Computer-based communications modes, such as packet radio, which can be used to transmit and receive computer files, or digital information.

DE – The Morse code abbreviation for “from” or “this is.” Deci — The metric prefix for 10–1, or divide by 10.

Delta loop antenna – A variation of the cubical quad with triangular elements.

Detector – The stage in a receiver in which the modulation (voice or other information) is recovered from the RF signal.

Digipeater – A packet-radio station used to retransmit signals that are specifically addressed to be retransmitted by that station.

Digital communications – Computer-based communications modes. This can include data modes like packet radio and text-only modes like radioteletype (RTTY).

Dipole antenna – See Half-wave dipole. A dipole need not be ½ wavelength long.

Direct current (dc) – Electrical current that flows in one direction only.

Director – An element in front of the driven element in a Yagi and some other directional antennas.

Double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch – A switch that has six contacts. The DPDT switch has two center contacts. The two center contacts can each be connected to one of two other contacts.

Double-pole, single-throw (DPST) switch – A switch that connects two contacts to another set of contacts. A DPST switch turns two circuits on or off at the same time.

Driven element – The part of an antenna that connects directly to the feed line.

Dual-band antenna – An antenna designed for use on two different Amateur Radio bands.

Dummy antenna – A station accessory that allows you to test or adjust transmitting equipment without sending a signal out over the air. Also called dummy load.

Dummy load – A station accessory that allows you to test or adjust transmitting equipment without sending a signal out over the air. Also called dummy antenna.

Duplexer – A device that allows a dual-band radio to use a single dual-band antenna.

Duty cycle – A measure of the amount of time a transmitter is operating at full output power during a single transmission. A lower duty cycle means less RF radiation exposure for the same PEP output.

DX – Distance, foreign countries.

E region – The second lowest ionospheric region, the E region exists only during the day. Under certain conditions, it may refract radio waves enough to return them to Earth.

Earth ground – A circuit connection to a ground rod driven into the Earth or to a cold-water pipe made of copper that goes into the ground.

Earth station – An amateur station located on, or within 50 km of, the Earth’s surface intended for communications with space stations or with other Earth stations by means of one or more other objects in space.

Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) or Moonbounce – A method of communicating with other stations by reflecting radio signals off the Moon’s surface.

Electric field – An invisible force of nature. An electric field exists in a region of space if an electrically charged object placed in the region is subjected to an electrical force.

Electromotive force (EMF) – The force or pressure that pushes a current through a circuit.

Electron – A tiny, negatively charged particle, normally found in an area surrounding the nucleus of an atom. Moving electrons make up an electrical current.

Elmer – An individual who acts as an advisor or mentor to a newly licensed amateur.

Emergency – A situation where there is a danger to lives or property.

Emergency traffic – Messages with life and death urgency or requests for medical help and supplies that leave an area shortly after an emergency.

Emission – The transmitted signal from an amateur station.

Emission privilege – Permission to use a particular emission type (such as Morse code or voice).

Emission types – Term for the different modes authorized for use on the Amateur Radio bands. Examples are CW, SSB, RTTY and FM. Energy – The ability to do work; the ability to exert a force to move some object.

F region – A combination of the two highest ionospheric regions, the F1 and F2 regions. The F region refracts radio waves and returns them to Earth. Its height varies greatly depending on the time of day, season of the year and amount of sunspot activity.

False or deceptive signals – Transmissions that are intended to mislead or confuse those who may receive the transmissions. For example, distress calls transmitted when there is no actual emergency are false or deceptive signals.

Feed line – The wires or cable used to connect a transmitter, receiver or transceiver to an antenna. See Transmission line.

Filter – A circuit that will allow some signals to pass through it but will greatly reduce the strength of others.

Final– 1) The final tube(s) or transistors in an amplifier – – “I just put new finals in this transmitter and I’m getting a lot more power output.” 2) The last transmission in a contact before singing off – – “OK this will be my final for now,  see you again next time”.

Frequency – The number of complete cycles of an alternating current that occur per second.

Frequency bands – A group of frequencies where amateur communications are authorized.

Frequency coordination – Allocating repeater input and output frequencies to minimize interference between repeaters and to other users of the band.

Frequency coordinator – An individual or group that recommends repeater frequencies to reduce or eliminate interference between repeaters operating on or near the same frequency in the same geographical area.

Frequency discriminator – A type of detector used in some FM receivers.

Frequency modulated (FM) phone – The type of signals used to communicate by voice (phone) over most repeaters. FM is a method of combining an RF carrier with an information signal, such as voice. The voice information (or data) changes the RF carrier frequency in the modulation process. (see Amplitude modulation). As you might suspect, we use voice or data to vary the frequency of the transmitted signal. FM broadcast stations and most professional communications (police, fire, taxi) use FM. VHF/UHF FM voice is the most popular amateur mode.

Frequency privilege – Permission to use a particular group of frequencies.

Front-end overload – Interference to a receiver caused by a strong signal that overpowers the receiver RF amplifier (“front end”). See also receiver overload.

Fuse – A thin metal strip mounted in a holder. When too much current passes through the fuse, the metal strip melts and opens the circuit.

General-coverage receiver-A receiver used to listen to a wide range of frequencies. Most general-coverage receivers tune from frequencies below the standard-broadcast band to at least 30 MHz. These frequencies include the shortwave-broadcast bands and the amateur bands from 160 to 10 meters.

Giga – The metric prefix for 109, or times 1,000,000,000.

Grace period – The time FCC allows following the expiration of an amateur license to renew that license without having to retake an examination. Those who hold an expired license may not operate an amateur station until the license is reinstated.

Ground connection – A connection made to the earth for electrical safety. This connection can be made inside (to a metal cold-water pipe) or outside (to a ground rod).

Ground rod – A copper or copper-clad steel rod that is driven into the earth. A heavy copper wire from the ham shack connects all station equipment to the ground rod.

Ground-wave propagation – The method by which radio waves travel along the Earth’s surface.

Half-wave dipole – A basic antenna used by radio amateurs. It consists of a length of wire or tubing, opened and fed at the center. The entire antenna is ½ wavelength long at the desired operating frequency.

Ham – An Amateur Radio operator licensed to operate amateur radio station.

Ham-bands-only receiver-A receiver designed to cover only the bands used by amateurs. Usually refers to the bands from 80 to 10 meters, sometimes including 160 meters.

Harmonics – Signals from a transmitter or oscillator occurring on whole-number multiples (2×, 3×, 4×, etc) of the desired operating frequency.

Health and Welfare traffic – Messages about the well being of individuals in a disaster area. Such messages must wait for Emergency and Priority traffic to clear, and results is advisories to those outside the disaster area awaiting news from family and friends.

Hertz (Hz) – An alternating-current frequency of one cycle per second. The basic unit of frequency.

High-pass filter – A filter designed to pass high-frequency signals, while blocking lower-frequency signals.

Impedance – The opposition to electric current in a circuit. Impedance includes factors other than resistance, and applies to alternating currents. Ideally, the characteristic impedance of a feed line is the same as the transmitter output impedance and the antenna input impedance.

Impedance-matching device – A device that matches one impedance level to another. For example, it may match the impedance of an antenna system to the impedance of a transmitter or receiver. Amateurs also call such devices a Transmatch, impedance-matching network or antenna tuner.

Inductance – A measure of the ability of a coil to store energy in a magnetic field.

Inductor – An electrical component usually composed of a coil of wire wound on a central core. An inductor stores energy in a magnetic field.

Input frequency – A repeater’s receiving frequency. To use a repeater, transmit on the input frequency and receive on the output frequency.

Insulator – A material that maintains a tight grip on its electrons, so that an electric current cannot pass through it (within voltage limits).

Intermediate frequency (IF) – The output frequency of a mixing stage in a superheterodyne receiver. The subsequent stages in the receiver are tuned for maximum efficiency at the IF.

Ionizing radiation – Electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient energy to knock electrons free from their atoms, producing positive and negative ions. X-rays, gamma rays and ultraviolet radiation are examples of ionizing radiation.

Ionosphere – A region of electrically charged (ionized) gases high in the atmosphere. The ionosphere bends radio waves as they travel through it, returning them to Earth. Also see sky-wave propagation.

Jumper -A small piece of wire used to connect two parts of a circuit. In computers and other devices, a jumper may take the form of a smaller plastic piece with an internal conductor that fits over two circuit board posts.

– The Morse code abbreviation for “any station respond.”

Kilo – The metric prefix for 103, or times 1000.

Lightning protection – There are several ways to help prevent lightning damage to your equipment (and your house), among them unplugging equipment, disconnecting antenna feed lines and using a lightning arrestor. Compliance with National Fire Protection Association NFPA 780 Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection, is recommended to protect your house.

Limiter – A stage of an FM receiver that makes the receiver less sensitive to amplitude variations and pulse noise.

Line-of-sight propagation – The term used to describe VHF and UHF propagation in a straight line directly from one station to another.

Lower sideband (LSB) – The common single-sideband operating mode on the 40, 80 and 160-meter amateur bands.

Low-pass filter – A filter that allows signals below the cutoff frequency to pass through and attenuates signals above the cutoff frequency.

Malicious (harmful) interference – Intentional, deliberate obstruction of radio transmissions.

Maximum useable frequency (MUF) – The highest-frequency radio signal that will reach a particular destination using sky-wave propagation, or skip. The MUF may vary for radio signals sent to different destinations.

MAYDAY – From the French m’aidez (help me), MAYDAY is used when calling for emergency assistance in voice modes.

Mega – The metric prefix for 106, or times 1,000,000.

Metric prefixes – A series of terms used in the metric system of measurement. We use metric prefixes to describe a quantity as compared to a basic unit. The metric prefixes indicate multiples of 10.

Metric system – A system of measurement developed by scientists and used in most countries of the world. This system uses a set of prefixes that are multiples of 10 to indicate quantities larger or smaller than the basic unit.

Micro – The metric prefix for 10–6, or divide by 1,000,000.

Microphone – A device that converts sound waves into electrical energy.

Milli – The metric prefix for 10–3, or divide by 1000.

Mobile device – A radio transmitting device designed to be mounted in a vehicle. A push-to-talk (PTT) switch activates the transmitter.

Modem – Short for modulator/demodulator. A modem modulates a radio signal to transmit data and demodulates a received signal to recover transmitted data.

Modulate – To vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of a radio-frequency signal.

Modulation – The process of varying an RF carrier in some way (the amplitude or the frequency, for example) to add an information signal to be transmitted.

Monitor mode – One type of packet radio receiving mode. In monitor mode, everything transmitted on a packet frequency is displayed by the monitoring TNC. This occurs whether or not the transmissions are addressed to the monitoring station.

Morse code (see CW).

Multimeter – An electronic test instrument used to measure current, voltage and resistance in a circuit. Describes all meters capable of making these measurements, such as the volt-ohm-milliammeter (VOM), vacuum-tube voltmeter (VTVM) and field-effect transistor VOM (FET VOM).

Multimode transceiver -Transceiver capable of SSB, CW and FM operation.

National Electrical Code – A set of guidelines governing electrical safety, including antennas. This Nationwide standard is codified into law in many states.

Network – A term used to describe several packet stations linked together to transmit data over long distances.

Nonionizing radiation – Electromagnetic radiation that does not have sufficient energy to knock electrons free from their atoms. Radio frequency (RF) radiation is nonionizing.

NPN transistor – A transistor that has a layer of P-type semiconductor material sandwiched between layers of N-type semiconductor material.

Offset -The 300 to 1000-Hz difference in CW transmitting and receiving frequencies in a transceiver. For a repeater, offset refers to the difference between its transmitting and receiving frequencies.

Ohm – The basic unit of electrical resistance, used to describe the amount of opposition to current.

Ohm’s Law – A basic law of electronics. Ohm’s Law gives a relationship between voltage (E), current (I) and resistance (R). The voltage applied to a circuit is equal to the current through the circuit times the resistance of the circuit (E = IR).

One-way communications – Transmissions that are not intended to be answered. The FCC strictly limits the types of one-way communications allowed on the amateur bands.

Open circuit – An electrical circuit that does not have a complete path, so current can’t flow through the circuit.

Open repeater – A repeater that can be used by all hams who have a license that authorizes operation on the repeater frequencies.

Operator/primary station license – An amateur license actually includes two licenses in one. The operator license is that portion of an Amateur Radio license that gives permission to operate an amateur station. The primary station license is that portion of an Amateur Radio license that authorizes an amateur station at a specific location. The station license also lists the call sign of that station.

Output frequency – A repeater’s transmitting frequency. To use a repeater, transmit on the input frequency and receive on the output frequency.

Packet radio – A system of digital communication whereby information is broken into short bursts. The bursts (“packets”) also contain addressing and error-detection information.

Parallel circuit – An electrical circuit in which the electrons follow more than one path in going from the negative supply terminal to the positive terminal.

Parasitic beam antenna— Another name for the beam antenna.

Parasitic element – Part of a directive antenna that derives energy from mutual coupling with the driven element. Parasitic elements are not connected directly to the feed line.

Peak envelope power (PEP) – The average power of a signal at its largest amplitude peak.

Pecuniary – Payment of any type, whether money or other goods. Amateurs may not operate their stations in return for any type of payment.

Phone – Another name for voice communications.

Phone emission – The FCC name for voice or other sound transmissions.

Phonetic alphabet – Standard words used on voice modes to make it easier to understand letters of the alphabet, such as those in call signs. The call sign KA6LMN stated phonetically is Kilo Alfa Six Lima Mike November.

Pico – The metric prefix for 10–12, or divide by 1,000,000,000,000. PL (see CTCSS)

PL – (Also known as CTCSS – Continuous Tone-Coded Squelch System) A sub-audible tone system used on some repeaters. When added to a carrier, a CTCSS tone allows a receiver to accept a signal.

PNP transistor – A transistor that has a layer of N-type semiconductor material sandwiched between layers of P-type semiconductor material.

Polarization – The electrical-field characteristic of a radio wave. An antenna that is parallel to the surface of the earth, such as a dipole, produces horizontally polarized waves. One that is perpendicular to the earth’s surface, such as a quarter-wave vertical, produces vertically polarized waves. An antenna that has both horizontal and vertical polarization is said to be circularly polarized.

Portable device – A radio transmitting device designed to have a transmitting antenna that is generally within 20 centimeters of a human body.

Potentiometer – Another name for a variable resistor. The value of a potentiometer can be changed over a range of values without removing it from a circuit.

Power – The rate of energy consumption. We calculate power in an electrical circuit by multiplying the voltage applied to the circuit times the current through the circuit (P = IE).

Power supply – A circuit that provides a direct-current output at some desired voltage from an ac input voltage.

Priority traffic – Emergency-related messages, but not as important as Emergency traffic.

Procedural signal (prosign) – One or two letters sent as a single character. Amateurs use prosigns in CW contacts as a short way to indicate the operator’s intention. Some examples are K for “Go Ahead,” or AR for “End of Message.” (The bar over the letters indicates that we send the prosign as one character.)

Product detector – A device that allows a receiver to process CW and SSB signals. Propagation — The study of how radio waves travel.

Q signals – Three-letter symbols beginning with Q. Used on CW to save time and to improve communication. Some examples are QRS (send slower), QTH (location), QSO (ham conversation) and QSL (acknowledgment of receipt).

QSL card – A postcard that serves as a confirmation of communication between two hams.

Quarter-wavelength vertical antenna – An antenna constructed of a quarter-wavelength long radiating element placed perpendicular to the earth.

Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) – A part of the Amateur Service that provides radio communications for civil preparedness organizations during local, regional or national civil emergencies.

Radio-frequency interference (RFI) – Disturbance to electronic equipment caused by radio-frequency signals.

Radioteletype (RTTY) – Radio signals sent from one teleprinter machine to another machine. Anything that one operator types on his teleprinter will be printed on the other machine. Also known as narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy.

Receiver -A device that converts radio waves into signals we can hear or see.

Receiver incremental tuning (RIT) -A transceiver control that allows for a slight change in the receiver frequency without changing the transmitter frequency. Some manufacturers call this a clarifier (CLAR) control.

Receiver overload – Interference to a receiver caused by a strong RF signal that forces its way into the equipment. A signal that overloads the receiver RF amplifier (front end) causes front-end overload. Receiver overload is sometimes called RF overload.

Reflection – Signals that travel by line-of-sight propagation are reflected by large objects like buildings.

Reflector – An element behind the driven element in a Yagi and some other directional antennas.

Repeater station – An amateur station that automatically retransmits the signals of other stations.

Resistance – The ability to oppose an electric current.

Resistor – Any material that opposes a current in an electrical circuit. An electronic component specifically designed to oppose or control current through a circuit.

Resonant frequency – The desired operating frequency of a tuned circuit. In an antenna, the resonant frequency is one where the feed-point impedance contains only resistance.

RF burn – A burn produced by coming in contact with exposed RF voltages.

RF carrier – A steady radio frequency signal that is modulated to add an information signal to be transmitted. For example, a voice signal is added to the RF carrier to produce a phone emission signal.

RF overload – Another term for receiver overload.

RF radiation – Waves of electric and magnetic energy. Such electromagnetic radiation with frequencies as low as 3 kHz and as high as 300 GHz are considered to be part of the RF region.

RF safety – Preventing injury or illness to humans from the effects of radio-frequency energy.

Rig -The radio amateur’s term for a transmitter, receiver or transceiver.

RST – A system of numbers used for signal reports: R is readability, S is strength and T is tone. (On single-sideband phone, only R and S reports are used.)

Safety interlock – A switch that automatically turns off ac power to a piece of equipment when the top cover is removed.

Schematic symbol – A drawing used to represent a circuit component on a wiring diagram.

Selectivity -The ability of a receiver to separate two closely spaced signals.

Sensitivity – The ability of a receiver to detect weak signals.

Series circuit – An electrical circuit in which all the electrons must flow through every part of the circuit. There is only one path for the electrons to follow.

Shack — The room where an Amateur Radio operator keeps his or her station equipment.

Short circuit – An electrical circuit in which the current does not take the desired path, but finds a shortcut instead. Often the current goes directly from the negative power-supply terminal to the positive one, bypassing the rest of the circuit.

Sidebands – The sum or difference frequencies generated when an RF carrier is mixed with an audio signal. Single-sideband phone (SSB) signals have an upper sideband (USB — that part of the signal above the carrier) and a lower sideband (LSB — the part of the signal below the carrier). SSB transceivers allow operation on either USB or LSB.

Silent Key – SK. Euphemism for a deceased Amateur Radio operator. In the Western Union company’s “92 code” used even before the American Civil War, the number 30 meant “the end. No more.” It also meant “good night.” In Landline Morse, 30 is sent didididahdit daaah, the zero being a long dash. Run the 30 together and it has the same sound as SK.

Simplex operation – Receiving and transmitting on the same frequency. See duplex operation.

Single Sideband (SSB) phone – A common mode of voice operation on the amateur bands. SSB is a form of amplitude modulation.The amplitude of the transmitted signal varies with the voice signal variations.

Single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch – A switch that connects one center contact to one of two other contacts.

Single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch – A switch that only connects one center contact to another contact.

Skip zone – An area of poor radio communication, too distant for ground waves and too close for sky waves.

Sky-wave propagation – The method by which radio waves travel through the ionosphere and back to Earth. Sometimes called skip, sky-wave propagation has a far greater range than line-of-sight and ground-wave propagation.

SOS – A Morse code call for emergency assistance.

Space station – An amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earth’s surface.

Specific absorption rate (SAR) – A term that describes the rate at which RF energy is absorbed into the human body. Maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits are based on whole-body SAR values.

Splatter – A type of interference to stations on nearby frequencies. Splatter occurs when a transmitter is overmodulated.

Spurious emissions – Signals from a transmitter on frequencies other than the operating frequency.

Standing-wave ratio (SWR) – Sometimes called voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR). A measure of the impedance match between the feed line and the antenna. Also, with a Transmatch in use, a measure of the match between the feed line from the transmitter and the antenna system. The system includes the Transmatch and the line to the antenna. VSWR is the ratio of maximum voltage to minimum voltage along the feed line. Also the ratio of antenna impedance to feed-line impedance when the antenna is a purely resistive load.

Station grounding — Connecting all station equipment to a good earth ground improves both safety and station performance.

Sunspot cycle – The number of sunspots increases and decreases in a predictable cycle that lasts about 11 years.

Sunspots – Dark spots on the surface of the sun. When there are few sunspots, long-distance radio propagation is poor on the higher-frequency bands. When there are many sunspots, long-distance HF propagation improves.

Switch – A device used to connect or disconnect electrical contacts.

SWR meter – A measuring instrument that can indicate when an antenna system is working well. A device used to measure SWR.

Tactical call signs – Names used to identify a location or function during local emergency communications.

Teleprinter – A machine that can convert keystrokes (typing) into electrical impulses. The teleprinter can also convert the proper electrical impulses back into text. Computers have largely replaced teleprinters for amateur radioteletype work.

Television interference (TVI) – Interruption of television reception caused by another signal.

Temperature inversion – A condition in the atmosphere in which a region of cool air is trapped beneath warmer air.

Temporary state of communications emergency – When a disaster disrupts normal communications in a particular area, the FCC can declare this type of emergency. Certain rules may apply for the duration of the emergency.

Terminal – An inexpensive piece of equipment that can be used in place of a computer in a packet radio station.

Third-party communications – Messages passed from one amateur to another on behalf of a third person.

Third-party communications agreement – An official understanding between the United States and another country that allows amateurs in both countries to participate in third-party communications.

Third-party participation – The way an unlicensed person can participate in amateur communications. A control operator must ensure compliance with FCC rules (this document is not an actual license).

Ticket – A common name for an Amateur Radio license. Also often used to describe the actual paper given to the licensee by the examiner at the time of passing an exam, which shows he/she passed.

Time-out timer – A device that limits the amount of time any one person can talk through a repeater.

Transceiver – A radio transmitter and receiver combined in one unit.

Transistor – A solid-state device made of three layers of semiconductor material. See NPN transistor and PNP transistor.

Transmission line – The wires or cable used to connect a transmitter or receiver to an antenna. Also called feed line.

Transmitter – A device that produces radio-frequency signals.

Troposphere – The region in Earth’s atmosphere just above the Earth’s surface and below the ionosphere.

Tropospheric bending – When radio waves are bent in the troposphere, they return to Earth farther away than the visible horizon.

Tropospheric ducting – A type of VHF propagation that can occur when warm air overruns cold air (a temperature inversion).

Unbalanced line – Feed line with one conductor at ground potential, such as coaxial cable.

Uncontrolled environment – Any area in which an RF signal may cause radiation exposure to people who may not be aware of the radiated electric and magnetic fields. The FCC generally considers members of the general public and an amateur’s neighbors to be in an uncontrolled RF radiation exposure environment to determine the maximum permissible exposure levels.

Unidentified communications or signals – Signals or radio communications in which the transmitting station’s call sign is not transmitted.

Upper sideband (USB) – The common single-sideband operating mode on the 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10-meter HF amateur bands, and all the VHF and UHF bands.

Variable capacitor – A capacitor that can have its value changed within a certain range.

Variable resistor – A resistor whose value can be adjusted over a certain range, without removing it from a circuit.

Variable-frequency oscillator (VFO) – An oscillator used in receivers and transmitters. The frequency is set by a tuned circuit using capacitors and inductors. The frequency can be changed by adjusting the components in the tuned circuit.

Vertical antenna – A common amateur antenna, often made of metal tubing. The radiating element is vertical. There are usually four or more radial elements parallel to or on the ground.

Visible horizon – The most distant point one can see by line of sight.

Voice – Any of the several methods used by amateurs to transmit speech.

Voice communications – Hams can use several voice modes, including FM and SSB.

Volt (V) – The basic unit of electrical pressure or EMF.

Voltage – The EMF or pressure that causes electrons to move through an electrical circuit.

Voltmeter – A test instrument used to measure voltage.

Watt (W) — The unit of power in the metric system. The watt describes how fast a circuit uses electrical energy.

Wattmeter – Also called a power meter, a test instrument used to measure the power output (in watts) of a transmitter. A directional wattmeter measures both forward and reflected power.

Wavelength – Often abbreviated λ. The distance a radio wave travels in one RF cycle. The wavelength relates to frequency. Higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths.

X – In electrical equations, this letter stands for “Reactance.”

Yagi antenna – The most popular type of amateur directional (beam) antenna. It has one driven element and one or more additional elements.

Z — In electrical equations, this is used to mean “Impedance.”

How do you become a HAM

All you ever wanted, and maybe didn’t want to know.

To become a HAM or Amateur Radio Operator you must hold an amateur FCC license. This means taking a test from a local VE (Volunteer Examiner) group.

I am going to list a lot of links on this page where you can go to take practice tests, real tests, FCC info as well as other resources to learn. We try to keep lots of learning materials on our site, but we are still growing.

Lets first discuss what a HAM is and why you might want to be one. HAM means Amateur Radio Operator. Where it came from is a mysterious story for another post. Many ask, what do they mean by “amateur”. Most HAMs are anything but “amateur” but the FCC labeled the class of licenses amateur because they also issue licenses for those who work on radios professionally for a job. You can see where that could get confusing. When you consider that the first license for amateurs is a “Technician” license, it’s important that the amateur label get on their as well. A commercial radio license is much different.

They aren’t issued anymore, but at one time emergency dispatchers (Police, Fire, 911, etc) had to hold a Radio Operators license. I was once a holder of such a license. Now these licenses are only used for radio broadcasters, like DJs and of course those who work on radios for a occupationally.

Levels of Amateur Radio Licenses

Amateur Radio is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) under the Communications Act of 1934. It is also subject to numerous international agreements. All Amateur Radio operators must be licensed. In the U.S., there are three license classes. The higher the class of license, the more frequencies are available. Earning each higher class license requires passing a more difficult examination. Although regulated by the FCC, license exams are given by volunteer groups of Amateur Radio operators. Operating under organizations called Volunteer Examiner Coordinators, volunteers administer and grade tests and report results to the FCC, which then issues the license. U.S. licenses are good for 10 years before renewal, and anyone may hold one except a representative of a foreign government.

Starting with the lowest which has the least amount of privileges moving up to the highest.

This was restructured in 2000, prior to that there had been more classes, some think that was better, some worse, either way this is where we are now.

  • Technician Class

The Technician class license is the entry-level license of choice for most new ham radio operators. To earn the Technician license requires passing one examination totaling 35 questions on radio theory, regulations and operating practices. The license gives access to all Amateur Radio frequencies above 30 megahertz, allowing these licensees the ability to communicate locally and most often within North America. It also allows for some limited privileges on the HF (also called “short wave”) bands used for international communications.

  • General Class

The General class license grants some operating privileges on all Amateur Radio bands and all operating modes. This license opens the door to world-wide communications. Earning the General class license requires passing a 35 question examination. General class licensees must also have passed the Technician written examination.

  • Extra Class

The Amateur Extra class license conveys all available U.S. Amateur Radio operating privileges on all bands and all modes. Earning the license is more difficult; it requires passing a thorough 50 question examination. Extra class licensees must also have passed all previous license class written examinations.

Study Materials

Where to take practice tests

Where to take a REAL test and become a HAM

This is a hard one because there are multiple organizations who coordinate Volunteer Examiners and even beyond that many of those volunteer examiners aren’t very good about  keeping people in the loop as to when they are testing. It is usually easier to find a testing session in a bigger city because they are more organized. Check all the resources below, but also check local news outlet for community events and even local HAM club websites.

Below is a list from the FCC for Volunteer Examiner Coordinators at the highest level. You can contact the one closest to you for more information if you are still having trouble finding a test location and time.

P.O. Box 1283
Kodiak, AK 99615
P: 907-987-6716
225 Main Street
Newington, CT 06111-1494
P: 860-594-0300
F: 860-594-0339
1204 Governors Dr SE
Huntsville, AL 35801
P: 256-509-5271
P.O. Box 508
Chico, CA 95927-0508
P: 530-893-9211
POB 500133
Palmdale, CA 93591
P: 661-264-1863
P.O. Box 73665
Metairie, LA 70033
P: 504-636-8809
5287 W Belmont Rd
Tucson, AZ 85743
P: 520-219-0452
2505 S. Calhoun Rd., #203
New Berlin, WI 53151
MO-KAN VEC Coordinator
228 Tennessee Road
Richmond, KS 66080-9174
P: 785-615-1097
5511 Maryland Ave
La Mesa, CA 91942-1519
P: 619-843-3747
P.O. Box 60307
Sunnyvale, CA 94088-0307
P: 408-255-9000
P.O. Box 200065
Arlington, TX 76006-0065
P: 800-669-9594
7 Skylyn Ct.
Asheville, NC 28806-3922
P: 828-253-1192